Now showing items 1-20 of 63409

    • Maternal concerns and readiness to learn during postpartum hospitalization

      Kerr, Luann Marie (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The purpose of this study was to describe maternal concerns and readiness to learn during postpartum hospitalization. Thirty primigravidae women completed written questionnaires to identify concerns and selfreported readiness to learn at 4-8 and 28-32 hours after delivery. The most frequently identified areas of moderate or much concern related to the categories of self and baby at both assessment times. No statistically significant change was noted between time 1 and time 2 in regard to the focus of maternal concern. Self-reported readiness to learn related to the category of baby increased significantly 9 (P=.016) between the first and second assessment times. This study helps refine earlier models of readiness to learn in the early postpartum period.
    • Perceived insomnia, life-events and self-transcendence in middle and older adults

      Sabre, Linda Kay (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      Perceived insomnia, significant life events and self-transcendence were investigated in 15 individuals who ranged in age from 46 to 80. Participants were interviewed over the telephone in effort to assess their occurrence and severity of three types of insomnia as well as the variables of self-transcendence and occurrence of significant life events. Results indicated that 5 (33%) experienced the most severe level of insomnia that includes difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep and early morning awakening. Three types of significant life events were reported by the majority of respondents: health events, career and family problems were identified as occurring during the onset of insomnia. There was no significant relationship between selftranscendence and insomnia, yet additional analysis identified some significant positive relations between Self-Transcendence Scale items and types of insomnia. No demographic variables were associated with severity to any degree of significance, yet males had higher frequency of severity than females. Implications for better understanding and treating insomnia in adults are discussed.
    • Spirituality in oncology nurses : a phenomenological study

      O'Connor, Mary Francine (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      This study aims to illuminate the lived experience of spirituality in practicing oncology nurses. Definitions of spirituality, a conceptual framework for understanding spirituality in nursing, and the purpose of the study are offered in Chapter One. Chapter Two reviews the literature on spirituality in nursing and illustrates the lack of research on spirituality from nurses' perspective. Concepts in the literature related to spirituality, including intuition, miracles, and hope are reviewed. Literature on spirituality in related fields is also reviewed. Chapter Three provides a historical perspective on phenomenology and scrutinizes its usefulness in examining spirituality in oncology nurses. It also describes the sample, human subjects, and the procedure used in the study. Trustworthiness, credibility, and data analysis are also addressed. Chapter Four presents the findings of the study in the exhaustive description and essential structure. Finally, Chapter Five presents a review of the conceptual :framework, discussion and conclusions, implications for further research, and clinical implications.
    • Symptom management effectivness in multiple sclerosis patients

      Merriman, Elisabeth Lamb (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of self-rated symptom management effectiveness over time in multiple sclerosis clients living in the community. Secondary data analysis was conducted on Lamb's (1993) study Comprehensive Case Mana~ement for Individuals with Pro~ressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis: An Experimental Study. The four most frequently identified symptoms were pain, mood, bladder problem and activity level. Symptom management strategies identified to deal with reported bothersome symptoms were grouped by similarity into 13 clusters. The symptom management strategy clusters were discussed at two points in time with a decrease in symptom management strategies noted at T-2. The mean effectiveness of symptom management strategies increased slightly from a baseline of M=2.4 to M=2.5 over time. The secondary study clarifies the components necessary to examine more comprehensively symptom management strategy effectiveness and establishes a basis for further research.
    • An examination of depression, self-transcendence, perceived health, and functional status among male veterans in a geriatric rehabilitation program

      Saboe, Susan (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      Until recently, intensive rehabilitative services were rarely offered to the elderly or those with significant comorbidities. However, the salience of geriatric rehabilitation programs has increased in this the "century of old age" (Butler, 1991 ). This study, a secondary data analysis, evaluated the outcomes of one such program on three identified variables of depression, self-transcendence, and perceived health and explored the relationships of those variables and social support as predictors of functional status, the traditional marker of rehabilitative success. Sixty-four veterans were evaluated before and after a program of geriatric rehabilitation. Results indicated a significant increase in functional status and perceived health. Consistent with previous studies, the degree of functional status on admission to the program was the only significant predictor of discharge functional status. These findings support the utility of geriatric rehabilitation programs in increasing functional status in the elderly.

      Ffolliott, Peter F.; Brooks, Kenneth N.; Neary, Daniel G.; Univ Arizona; Univ Minnesota; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      Water harvesting, also called rainwater harvesting, is a technique of developing surface water resources to augment the quantity and quality of water available to the people in arid and semi-arid regions where other water sources are not readily available or too costly to develop and use. A waterharvesting system consists of facilities for collecting and storing rainfall and the resulting surface runoff until the water is used for livestock, small-scale agricultural production, or domestic uses. A distribution facility can also be required unless the collected water is immediately concentrated in the soil profile to grow plants. For example, a distribution facility is needed when the stored water is used to irrigate an agricultural crop or provide water to households.Water harvesting is potentially applicable in almost any area receiving at least 100 millimeters (mm) of annual rainfall (National Academy of Science 1974). Larger volumes of water can be stored on sites where the annual rainfall is 250 mm or more and an adequate storage facility is available.
    • Effects of testosterone/estrogen combined on the lipid profiles in menopausal women

      Andrews, Mary Frances (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Adding methyltestosterone to oral estrogen therapy has gained popularity for treatment of menopausal symptoms. Concern exists that adding methyltestosterone to estrogen replacement therapy may interfere with the advantageous effects of estrogen on the lipid profile of menopausal women. An experimental design was used to investigate the effects of testosterone added to estrogen therapy on the lipids of 36 climacteric women. Subjects, recruited from a clinic setting at a local military hospital, were randomly assigned to either an estrogen or an estrogen/methyltestosterone combination group. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on lifestyle habits. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated at pretreatment and at three and six months of therapy. A significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and a significant increase in the total/HDL cholesterol ratio was found with the Estratest™ . Based upon these initial findings, it would be prudent to perform baseline and follow-up lipid profiles in women receiving Estratest™ .

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Decker, Donald D.; U.S. Forest Service; Univ Arizona; USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      The Southwestern Borderlands Region of Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico are known for its biological diversity and beauty. The area is characterized by its mountains surrounded by deserts and grasslands. The region contains representative animals and plants from the Rocky Mountains in the north to the Sierra Madre Mountains to the south. Madrean oak woodlands and savannas are common within the area covering millions of acres. Periodic fires caused by lightning or Native American people maintained the grasslands and reduced the encroachment of woody vegetation and the accumulations of woody fuels. However, the role of fire declined after the transcontinental railroad was completed and large herds of cattle were introduced into the area. Fires are still ignited but do not spread throughout the landscape largely because overgrazing caused a decline in herbaceous vegetation which carried fires. Aggressive fire suppression by land managers also contributed to the reduced influence of fire. Public and private land managers are concerned that the lack of fires in the Borderlands Region is to blame for the increase in woody species and the decline in biological diversity and productivity of the grasslands and savannas. The Peloncillo Programmatic Fire Plan was developed by the Coronado National Forest to re-introduce landscape level prescribed and managed fires into Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands within the Peloncillo Mountains (Gottfried et al. 2009). One of the issues was whether it was best to burn in the cool-season (November-April) or the warm-season (May-October) because of concerns about potential harm to the threatened New Mexican ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus) and the endangered Palmer agave (Agave palmeri). The agave is important because it provides food for the endangered lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonyceris curasoae). The area usually burns during the warm period prior to the monsoon season.
    • Perspective of Navajo women in recovery from breast cancer

      Ashley, Veronica Jean (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      This research was an ethnographic study of the perceptions of five Navajo women who were in recovery from breast cancer. The conceptual orientation for this study consisted of the cultural and social structure dimensions from Leininger's Sunrise Model (Leininger, 1991). The domains identified in this study reflect the Sunrise Model's religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social factors, and cultural values and lifeways. The domains of meaning identified are: Support Persons and Practices, Power and Strength, Self-Care Practices, Difficult Feelings about Breast Cancer, and Biomedical Treatment. The three cultural themes that emerged from the analysis are: (a) Elders' teachings guide the process of recovery and all of lifeways; (b) Ceremonies and beliefs give the power for healing and are the spiritual journey that is woven throughout the culture; and ( c) Recovery is important because a long life is desirable.

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Neary, Daniel G.; U.S. Forest Service; Univ Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      Silvicultural studies on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, the oldest experimental forest in the United States, have been the basis for planning and implementing watershed management experiments in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. The primary purpose of these experiments had been to evaluate the potentials for increasing streamflow volumes while maintaining or improving other ecosystem-based, multiple-resource values. Knowledge gained from these experiments has provided today's managers with a better appreciation of the past management of Arizona's ponderosa pine forests. The effects of applying silvicultural treatments formulated largely from studies on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest and effects of these treatments on forest structures are reviewed in a historical context in this paper.

      Gottfried, Gerald J.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Neary, Daniel G.; Rocky Mountain Research Station, U.S. Forest Service; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      The 2.4 million acres of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests and the many resources that they provide are the basis for the wide range of interests and concerns relative to their stewardship by management agencies, special interest groups, and the general public. As might be expected, therefore, there are conflicts of interest among stakeholders. These conflicts often concern the impacts of tree cutting activities on non-market benefits such as wildlife habitats, streamflow regimes, and scenic beauty. A recent issue of conflict has been the application of prescribed or managed fires to reduce the large accumulations of flammable fuels that can cause damaging wildfires when ignited - especially ignitions in the wildland-urban-interface. However, silvicultural practices such as the application of prescribed fire or mechanical forest stand treatments that can reduce the accumulations of fuels are opposed by some members of society. Collaboration among the supportive but sometimes conflicting interests of the involved parties is necessary to resolve any difficult conflicts and thus provide more unified management of ponderosa pine forests.

      Neary, Daniel G.; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      In the quest to develop renewable energy sources, woody and agricultural crops are being viewed as an important source of low environmental impact feedstocks for electrical generation and biofuels production (Somerville et al. 2010, Berndes and Smith 2013). In countries like the USA, the bioenergy feedstock potential is dominated by agriculture (73%) (Perlack et al. 2005). In others like Finland the largest potential comes from forest resources. Forest bioenergy operational activities encompass activities of a continuing and cyclical nature such as stand establishment, mid-rotation silviculture, harvesting, product transportation, wood storage, energy production, ash recycling, and then back to stand establishment (Neary 2013). All of these have the potential to produce varying levels of disturbance that might affect site quality and water resources but the frequency for any given site is low (Berndes 2002, Shepard 2006, Neary and Koestner 2012). Agricultural production of feedstocks involves annual activities that have a much higher potential to affect soils and water resources. The way forward relative to assessing the soil and water impacts of bioenergy systems and the sustainability of biomass production rests with three approaches that could be used individually but are more likely to be employed in some combination (Neary and Langeveld 2013). These approaches are: (1) utilizing characteristics that can be quantified in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies by software, remote sensing, or other accounting methods (e.g.,greenhouse gas balances, energy balance, etc.; Cherubini and Strømman 2011); (2) measuring and monitoring ecosystem characteristics that can be evaluated in a more or less qualitative way (e.g., maintaining soil organic carbon) that might provide insights on potential productivity and sustainability, and (3) employing other proactive management characteristics such as Best Management Practices that are aimed at preventing environmental degradation.

      Neary, Daniel G.; USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)

      Ffolliott, Peter P.; Univ Arizona (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      The role of the Arizona Water Resources Committee and the goal of the Arizona Watershed Program in the early watershed management activities of the state are presented in the introduction of this paper to place its contents in perspective. The Arizona Watershed Resources Committee was a “citizen's advisory committee” that was formed in 1956 to assist in implementing the recommendations made in historic Barr Report to increase water yields and enhance the other natural resources found on the watersheds in the Salt and Verde River Basins of north-central Arizona (Fox et al. 2000). The Barr Report had been released to the public in the form of a short summary publication (Part I) and a more detailed and comprehensive document (Part II), both with the intriguing title of “Recovering Rainfall - More Water for Irrigation,” in the fall of 1956 (Barr 1956a, 1956b, respectively). Contents of the report supported the belief of members of the Arizona Water Resources Committee and many other people that the state's watersheds were in “bad shape” while providing what was called a “scientific basis” for improving these conditions by more intensive watershed management to primarily increase streamflow volumes. The Arizona Watershed Program was a collaborative initiative of the Arizona Water Resources Committee, the Watershed Management Division of the Arizona State Land Department, and the U.S. Forest Service and their cooperators to investigate the effects of vegetative management practices on the hydrologic processes affecting water yields and incorporate the findings obtained into watershed management practices (Fox et al. 2000). It was planned that this general goal would be met by three “highly integrated” programs – a research program, an action program, and a public relations program. Findings of the research and action programs have been reported by Ffolliott and Thorud (1974, 1975), Hibbert (1979), Baker and Ffolliott (1998), Baker (1999), Neary et al. (2002, 2008), DeBano et al. (2004), Solomon and Schmidt (1981), and others. A main component of the public relations program – the Arizona Watershed Symposia – is the focus of this paper.

      Ffolliott, Peter P.; Brooks, Kenneth N.; Univ Arizona; Univ Minnesota (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2014-04-12)
      Urbanization has been a significant cause for the fragmentation of wildland watersheds since the early 1950s. Furthermore, it is anticipated that urban developments will account for additional losses of natural landscapes into the 21st century. The National Resource Inventory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture indicated that millions of acres of forests, woodlands, agricultural croplands, and other open spaces were converted to urban and other developed areas in the 5 years beginning in 1992 as the rate of urbanization increased when compared to the earlier 10-year period (Alig et al. 2004). Aligned with a projected increase of more than 120 million people in the United States by 2050, urban developments will grow substantially into the future with the fastest rate in the western and southern regions. How urbanization impacts on hydrologic processes and how these impacts might be mitigated when necessary is the focus of this paper.
    • Sensations of dyspnea in patients with acute lobar atelectasis

      Mawk, Kristina Janeil (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Dyspnea is a subjective symptom, a symptom which is presumably experienced differently depending upon the underlying pathology. Most previous research on dyspnea symptom perception has been done in patients with chronic lung diseases. The present study investigated symptom perception in a group of 24 subjects with acute respiratory disease, acute lobar atelectasis. Patients were surveyed within 48 hours of deve.lopment of atelectasis. Visual analogue scales for dyspnea and distress \\1th breathing were used to identify symptom intensity. Subjects also identified terms which best described their breathing. Results demonstrated patients with atelectasis do perceive dyspnea and distress with breathing, although at a lesser intensity than levels published for subjects with chronic disease. The terms used to describe dyspnea were subjected to factor analysis. Seven symptom clusters were identified. The clusters identified were different than those previously identified in the literature for asthm~ interstitial disease, and others.
    • Occupational nurse case management : a study of cost effectiveness

      Luttrell, Pamela Victoria (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of a pre-existing Medical Management (MM) occupational health program (N=62) with an on-site Nurse Case Management (NCM) occupational health program (N=67) for employees with work related injuries or illnesses . Selected occupational health program costs between the two occupational health models were compared and relationships between demographic variables and incidence of work related injuries were explored. Subjects in the two comparison groups were those with work related injuries over a two year period. Functional, clinical and financial program outcomes were explored. Findings indicated significantly fewer lost work days for the NCM group. Nearly $240,000 was saved in total wage compensation, medical care, and manhours replaced costs in the NCM program compared to the MM. This outcome was attribured to decreased number of lost work days and developing and maintaining an effective modified duty program for injured employees by the nurse case manager. These findgins support the opportunity to strengthen ties with business consumers .
    • Exposure to chlorpyrifos and use of pesticides in Arizona

      Krinsley, Jeanne S. (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      This study of pesticide use and exposure in the Arizona NHEXAS sample explored demographic variation in pesticide use and the feasibility of predicting the subjects' urinary TCPY (a chlorpyrifos metabolite) using questionnaire data. A variety of demographic differences in pesticide use patterns such as frequency of personal application, use of professional exterminators, and frequency of use outside the home were found. In contrast, there were few demographic differences in TCPY, although mean TCPY was higher than in earlier epidemiological studies. Two mulitvariate (multiple regression) methods of predicting TCPY from questionnaire responses were tested. The first method combined pesticide use questions into a scale; the second method treated them separately. R2s were similar and below .25 using either method. Including only subjects reporting some pesticide use raised the R2 to .35. These results suggest that questionnaire responses cannot predict exposure accurately enough to be useful proxies for biological samples.
    • Cultural heritage and motherhood : experiences of a Mexican American family : daughters, mother and grandmother

      Gatto, Kathleen Mahoney (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      An ethnographic study of three generations of Mexican American women was conducted to discover cultural beliefs regarding pregnancy, childbearing and parenting. The study examined ways that beliefs are transmitted from generation to generation, if beliefs are maintained from generation to generation, and if beliefs are maintained, changed or lost between generations. Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality conceptual orientation was combined with Spector' s concepts of Heritage Consistency to guide data collection and analysis. Data were collected using participant observation and ethnographic interviews. Data were analyzed using the ethnoscience method. Findings indicate that the family has maintained many traditional values and beliefs. Cultural beliefs and values were taught by example. Most values and beliefs were retained between generations. A single example of a changed value was found. One mother failed to follow the culturally prescribed 40 day period of rest after childbirth.
    • Evaluation of a program to reduce prenatal risk among pregnant teenagers

      Bolton, Mary Louise Hartman (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      The United States has the highest incidence of teenage pregnancy among the developed countries of the world. Complications associated with pregnancy among teenagers are theorized to be associated with their higher rates of morbidity and mortality as compared with their older counterparts. A secondary analysis of data on seven problems related to pregnancy (ie; complications of labor, Cesarean section, premature birth, congenital abnormalities, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions, low birth weight, and neonate deaths) was conducted to explore the effectiveness of the Pima County Comprehensive Prenatal Care Initiative program designed to combat these issues. Significantly lower proportions in complications of labor, Cesarean sections, and premature births were found among those mothers enrolled in the program than in the comparison group. The frequency of NICU admissions and low birth weight infants showed no significant change, and the occurrences of congenital abnormalities and neonate deaths among the infants were more frequent. The possible explanations for these results are explored, and implications for the nursing profession are delineated.