Tree-Ring Research is the peer-reviewed journal of the Tree Ring Society. The journal was first published in 1934 under the title Tree-Ring Bulletin. In 2001, the title changed to Tree-Ring Research.

Issues from 1934–2006 are freely available on the publications section of the Tree-Ring Society website. The Tree-Ring Society and the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona partnered with the University Libraries to re-digitize back issues for improved searching capabilities and long-term preservation.


Contact the Editor of Tree-Ring Research at editor@treeringsociety.org.

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Recent Submissions

  • In Memoriam- Marvin A. Stokes (1927–2010)

    Swetnam, Tom (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
  • In Memoriam- Laurent Misson (1971–2010)

    Guiot, Joel (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
  • Acknowledgment Of Reviewers (2002-2009)

    Leavitt, Steven W.; Tree-Ring Society (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
  • Erratum

    Fowler, Anthony; Lorrey, A.; Crossley, P.; School of Environment, The University of Auckland (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
  • Dendrochronological Analysis Of Subfossil Fraxinus From The Middle And Late Holocene Period In Lithuania

    Vitas, Adomas; Group of Dendroclimatology and Radiometrics, Centre of Environmental Research, Faculty of Nature Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    Dendrochronological investigations on subfossil European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood found in two bogs of Western Lithuania are presented. Radiocarbon dating has revealed that Fraxinus grew in the Middle and Late Holocene, from approximately 4700 BC to 1500 BC. It is proposed that the growth of Fraxinus at these bogs was limited by differing hydrological regimes. Rising soil water levels induced a long decline in radial growth followed by a sharp reduction (up to 51%) in ring widths before the trees died. Until now, forest history in Lithuania was mostly based on results from palynological studies. This research demonstrates the potential of using dendrochronology to extend the distribution record of Fraxinus in the Baltic region during different periods of the Holocene.
  • Evaluation Of Goodness-Of-Fit Statistics From PRECON To Estimate The Strength Of Multivariate Tree Growth-Climate Associations

    Leblanc, David C.; Dept. of Biology, Ball State University (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    Although the primary purpose of response function analysis is to identify climate variables that have significant associations with tree radial growth, many researchers are also interested in assessing the strength of these associations. Existing response function programs use a liberal criterion to determine how many climate variables should be included in the analysis. The resulting response function models include a large number of predictor variables. The objective of this analysis is to determine if these response function models are over-fitted to the data used to calibrate them, resulting in over-estimation of strength of associations. PRECON was used to produce response functions for white oak chronologies from n = 149 sites, with separate response functions using 34 monthly climate variables or 10 seasonal climate variables. An analysis of goodness-of-fit statistics for response function calibration provided strong evidence of over-estimation of strength of associations. The degree of over-estimation was greater when 34 monthly climate variables were included in the models compared to models with10 season variables. There was much less evidence of over-fitting for the R-verif statistic that reflects strength of association between predicted and actual tree-ring indices that were not included in model calibration. The PRECON R-verif statistic is the best measure of the strength of multivariate growth-climate associations currently available.
  • An Assessment Of The Dendroclimatic Potential Of Three Conifer Species In Northern Minnesota

    Kipfmueller, Kurt F.; Elliott, Grant P.; Larson, Evan R.; Salzer, Matthew W.; Department of Geography, University of Minnesota; Department of Geography, University of Missouri; Department of Social Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Platteville; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    Ring-width chronologies from Pinus resinosa Ait., Pinus strobus L., and Thuja occidentalis L. were developed in two areas of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness to assess their growth climate response and their potential for developing reconstructions of climate. New red pine chronologies were combined with existing chronologies to extend the ring-width record both into the past and into the present. Ring-width response to climate, assessed using correlation analysis and response functions, was broadly similar among all three species with relatively significant positive relationships with June–July precipitation and significant negative (but less consistent) associations with June–July temperatures (p < 0.05). White-cedar appeared to have a broader phenological window of response with a stronger spring influence when compared to other species included in this study. Comparisons with other nearby proxies showed relatively strong coherence overall but with some important regional differences. Overall, these species may be useful for placing current climatic patterns in the Boundary Waters within a longer term perspective but care should be taken with respect to identifying appropriate climatic records for calibration.
  • Gender-Related Climate Response Of Radial Growth In Dioecious Fraxinus Mandshurica Trees

    Gao, Lushuang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus; Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, The Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    This paper presents an analysis of tree-ring growth patterns of male and female Fraxinus mandshurica trees from 1931 to 2007. The specific object was to study the response of radial growth to climate variables separately for male and female trees. The results show that the growth patterns in the two genders were similar during the mid-1950s to 1970s but different in the periods 1931–1940s and 1980–2007. In the period 1980–2007, the mean sensitivity and mean widths of the tree rings were significantly different between the genders (p < 0.05). The climate-growth response in female and male trees was also different. Female trees are sensitive to precipitation in November of the previous year, whereas male trees respond to mean temperature in November of the previous year. The results confirm that climatic sensitivity in male and female trees of dioecious species is different, yet this difference is not stable through time.
  • Lack Of Gender Bias In Citation Rates Of Publications By Dendrochronologists: What is Unique About This Discipline?

    Copenheaver, Carolyn A.; Goldbeck, Kyrille; Cherubini, Paolo; Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech; University Libraries, Virginia Tech; Swiss Federal Institute for Forestry, Snow, and Landscape Research (WSL) (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    Most academic disciplines have a gender bias that exists in the recognition of research publications: women’s publications are cited at lower rates than men’s publications. In this paper, we examined whether a similar gender bias existed for publications by dendrochronologists. Tree-ring research is a fairly small field where males outnumber females, and therefore the sample size was limited to 20 female dendrochronologists and 20 male dendrochronologists. It was determined that native language (English or non-native English speaker), current employment (government or academic), and gender of the first-author do not significantly influence a paper’s probability of being cited. However, years since dissertation completion was a good predictor of a paper’s citation rate. We suggest that the high productivity of female dendrochronologists and a pattern of co-authoring with male colleagues bring the work of females to the attention of their male colleagues and thus eliminate the gender bias in citation of women’s work common to other disciplines.
  • Changes In Wood Anatomy In Tree Rings Of Pinus Pinaster Ait. Following Wounding By Flash Floods

    Ballesteros, J. A.; Stoffel, M.; Bodoque, J. M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Hitz, O.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Department of Research and Geoscientific Prospective, Geological Survey of Spain (IGME); Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne; Climatic Change and Climate Impacts, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva; Department of Geosciences, Geography, chemin du Musée 4, University of Fribourg; Mining and Geological Engineering Department, University of Castilla La Mancha, Campus Fábrica de Armas (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-07)
    This paper analyzes the anatomical response of Pinus pinaster Ait. following wounding by flash floods. A total of 14 wood samples were taken from 14 different scarred trees located on the river banks of the Arroyo Cabrera torrent (Spanish Central System). In addition, 20 increment cores were collected from undisturbed and healthy P. pinaster trees to build a local reference chronology. For the injured trees, analysis focused on growth changes in early earlywood (EE) tracheids, namely on differences in (i) lumen size; (ii) cell-wall percentage and cell-wall thickness; (iii) radial length and tangential width of tracheids; as well as (iv) in the abundance of resin ducts in earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) following wounding. Results indicate that tissues bordering flash-flood wounds are characterized by reduced growth rates and a decrease of EE tracheid lumen area by 51%. In addition, cell-wall percentage increases by 34% in the increment rings formed after the event and significant changes are observed in the radial length and tangential width of EE tracheids. Observations on resin ducts do not yield any significant results. Based on these anatomical parameters, detecting and dating past flash-flood events in growth rings is now possible for Mediterranean species, specifically P. pinaster.
  • The Historical Dendroarchaeology Of The Ximénez-Fatio House, St. Augustine, Florida, U.S.A.

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Kobziar, Leda N.; Harley, Grant L.; Russell, Kevin P.; LaForest, Liza B.; Oppermann, Joseph K.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Science, Department of Geography, The University of Tennessee; School of Forest Resources & Conservation and School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida; Joseph K. Oppermann—Architect (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    In recent decades, agencies charged with managing historic structures and sites have found dendroarchaeological studies increasingly valuable, given the ability of such studies to verify (or refute) accepted dates of construction. The Ximénez-Fatio House has well-documented historical and cultural significance for the state of Florida, as it is one of St. Augustine’s oldest, best-preserved, and most studied historic properties. According to documentary sources, the two-story coquina-stone main house was reportedly built around 1797–1798, and included a one-story wing of warehouses, giving the house a distinctive ‘‘L’’ shape. Documentary evidence also suggests that a second story was added above the wing sometime between 1830 and 1842. However, after studying the building fabric itself, historical architects now believe the entire wing of the house was remodeled two decades later in the 1850s. Our goals were to: (1) determine the probable construction years for the original house and wing using tree-ring dating techniques, and (2) verify the probable construction year for the remodeling that occurred in the wing section of the house. A total of 74 core samples were extracted from longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) timbers used to construct the house. Twenty-six were confidently crossdated both visually and statistically against each other to produce a 185-year floating tree-ring chronology. A statistically significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between our chronology and a longleaf pine chronology from Lake Louise, Georgia, anchors our chronology between 1673 and 1857. No cutting dates were obtained from the main house, but the lack of any tree rings that post-date 1798 supports the 1797 construction date. Furthermore, cutting dates obtained from beams in the first-floor wing revealed that the extensive remodeling of the wing likely occurred in the period 1856 to 1858 soon after the house had been purchased by Louisa Fatio in 1855.
  • Stable-Carbon Isotope Time Series From Tropical Tree Rings Indicate A Precipitation Signal

    Fichtler, Esther; Helle, Gerhard; Worbes, Martin; Georg August Universität Göttingen, Department of Crop Sciences, Agronomy in the Tropics; Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Research Centre Jülich (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    Although studies on stable-carbon isotopes in trees from temperate zones provide abundant paleoclimatic data, tropical trees are still understudied in this context. Therefore this study examined the variability of intra- and inter-annual stable-carbon isotopic pattern in several tree species from various tropical climates. The 𝛿¹³C values of samples of 12 broadleaved trees (seven species) from various paleotropical and neotropical sites along a climatic moisture gradient were investigated. The inter-annual variability between species and sites was studied. Further the relationship between 𝛿¹³C and precipitation time series was analyzed. Results show that tropical tree species show a similar variability in carbon isotopic composition as temperate tree species. Significant correlations between annual precipitation and tree-ring 𝛿¹³C time series were negative. Successful crossdating of a tree-ring 𝛿¹³C time series highlights the potential of carbon isotope measurements for tropical tree-ring analytical studies. Tropical broadleaved trees are able to capture a carbon isotopic signal in their annual rings even under everwet conditions and show good potential for paleoclimatic research.
  • Removing Biological Trends From Tree-Ring Series: Testing Modified Hugershoff Curves

    Fang, Keyan; Gou, Xiaohua; Peters, Kenneth; Li, Jinbao; Zhang, Fen; MOE Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems, Lanzhou University; Tree-Ring Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    The performance of the Hugershoff curve on fitting the growth trends of tree-ring series was tested using ring-width series with different starting years. The fitted values tend to be biased by tree-ring series close to pith, a phenomenon that was referred to as the ‘‘start-fitting problem’’. We determined three parameters with specific biological age-related meanings for the Hugershoff growth curve, i.e. the maximum growth, the maximum slope and the maximum changing ratio of slopes. A set of modified Hugershoff curves with different starting years was proposed to mitigate the start-fitting problem. Behavior of the modified Hugershoff curves on tree-ring series standardizations was tested and discussed. The ‘‘end-fitting problem’’ suggests that deviations in one interval could bias the fitted values of other time periods by using the Hugershoff curve.
  • The Meteorological Significance Of False Rings In Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus Virginiana L.) From The Southern Great Plains, U.S.A.

    Edmondson, Jesse R.; Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Department of Geosciences (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    The growth rings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) often contain a high frequency of false intra-annual growth bands, which complicates the dendrochronology of this species. However, exactly dated false rings replicated among many trees can reflect major weather changes during the growing season. Sixty-one trees from two sites (Oklahoma and Kansas) were dated and used to compile replicated chronologies of false rings at both locations extending from AD 1700–2000. False-ring events during the modern instrumental era were compared with the daily weather data from nearby stations. Significant false-ring events occurred at both locations during years that experienced a dramatic late-growing season weather reversal, when an extended period of high temperatures and drought was followed by prolonged cool and wet conditions. Synoptic weather maps for these events indicate that all ten replicated false-ring events in the instrumental era occurred during the highly unseasonable penetration of a cold front into the region. However, none of the significant false-ring events occurred in the same year at both sites. These separate false-ring chronologies indicate that there may be phenological differences in the timing of radial growth in redcedar between Kansas and Oklahoma, and that the weather conditions responsible for false-ring formation often occur at the mesoscale and do not often impact central Kansas and northcentral Oklahoma simultaneously.
  • Technique To Improve Visualization Of Elusive Tree-Ring Boundaries In Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    DeRose, R. Justin; Gardner, Richard S.; Department of Wildland Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University; Department of Wildland Resources, Utah State University (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    A simple, quick, and inexpensive technique to improve visualization of aspen (Populus tremuloides) tree rings under the microscope, the ‘shadow technique’, is described. The technique assumes appropriate preparation of increment cores or cross-sections and works well on the lighter portions of the sample with fungus- and bacteria-free wood. The shadow technique was used successfully to elucidate tree-ring boundaries in small diameter (<5 cm DBH) aspen from northern Utah that commonly had >100 annual rings. Crossdating verified whether the elusive rings were missing or false rings. Aspen tree-ring measurement will be greatly enhanced with the shadow technique and preliminary investigation suggests it could be used on other species such as curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius).
  • Flooding Effects On Tree-Ring Formations Of Riparian Eastern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), Northwestern Quebec, Canada

    Denneler, Bernhard; Bergeron, Yves; Bégin, Yves; Département des sciences appliquées, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue; Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (Tree-Ring Society, 2010-01)
    Tree-ring formation of eastern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) at a boreal lake in northwestern Quebec, Canada, was monitored using manual band dendrometers to (i) retrace cambial activity phases, (ii) evaluate the effects of flooding on radial growth, and (iii) analyze the relationships with meteorological factors. The daily circumferential activity of four trees at each of two sites, a riparian and an upland site, was recorded during the growing season of 1996, a year with an extreme spring flood. First cambium cell divisions occurred near June 9, followed by a distinct and sustained upward trend in the stem basal area until mid-July that reflected the earlywood formation. The strongly synchronous circumferential activity at both sites suggests no adverse flooding effect on growth of the riparian trees, which is explained by the rapid retreat of the water just before growth initiation in early June. The following month until mid-August was characterized by strong short-term fluctuations caused by alternating drought and rain periods and a slight downward trend of the basal area for six of the eight banded white-cedars. The dendrometers of two trees, the closest to the lake, showed a slight upward trend probably reflecting latewood formation. Pearson correlation with meteorological data indicated that precipitation was positively related to the daily changes in basal area of all trees except during the period of earlywood formation, which probably resulted from the high soil moisture after spring snow-melting. Mean and minimum air humidity were positively related and maximum temperature negatively related to the daily variations in stem circumference during the whole monitoring period, emphasizing the importance of the internal water status on stem size.