AffiliationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration
KeywordsStandard spacecraft interfaces
Standard data services
Standard communications services
Spacecraft user services
Standard user services
Spacecraft plug and play
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AbstractThe Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies that is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be directed towards a spacecraft architecture, as a distributed system of processors and busses. This paper will review the services that are being proposed for SOIF. These services include a Command and Data Acquisition Service, a Time Distribution Service, a Message Transfer Service, a File Transfer Service, and a CCSDS Packet Service. An Instrument & Subsystem “Plug & Play Service is currently under study, but is included in this paper for completeness.
SponsorsInternational Foundation for Telemetering
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The Market's Perception of the Regulatory Change from Auditing Standard No. 2 to Auditing Standard No. 5Hoffman, Benjamin (The University of Arizona., 2012)I investigate the stock market's reaction to events related to the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board's (PCAOB) development and enactment of Auditing Standard No. 5 (AS 5). The change from Auditing Standard No. 2 (AS 2) to AS 5 was debated in the business press at length. The PCAOB stated that the goal of AS 5 was to reduce the prohibitive costs of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 - Section 404 and AS 2 (Krishnan et al. 2008) while maintaining the effectiveness of the internal control audits required by those policies. However, there was concern that internal control audit quality would decrease under AS 5. My study examines how investors perceived this change by considering stock market reaction around 10 event dates related to PCAOB and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) actions with regard to the development and enactment of AS 5. I find evidence that the market's reaction to key AS 5 events was significantly negative, which is consistent with investors perceiving AS 5 as a significant decrease in internal control audit quality. I also study these investor reactions cross-sectionally to further examine the two potential effects of AS 5 (decrease in compliance costs and decrease in internal control audit quality) and how they relate to firm characteristics (size, complexity, litigation risk, and fraud risk). I find evidence consistent with my main finding: investors' perceived increase in information risk under AS 5 is apparent when considering firm characteristics. Finally, I consider ex-post financial reporting quality under AS 5 and find no significant change in financial reporting quality compared to under AS 2. This study contributes to accounting research by being the first to study the stock market's perception of this significant policy change archivally and the first to consider the effectiveness of AS 5 with regard to financial reporting quality.
Directing Curriculum through Standards: A Content Analysis of the 2010 Texas State Social Studies StandardsSmith, Norman Edward (The University of Arizona., 2012)In 2010 the Texas Education Agency adopted newly rewritten curriculum standards for the state's social studies courses K-12. The period leading up to the adoption of the standards proved contentious as the new standards moved out of the writing committees and into the public realm. The issues brought forth from initial readings of the standards appeared in the national spotlight as educators and the general public from around the country voiced their concerns. Many concerns centered on the belief that the Texas State Board of Education had rewritten the standards to reflect a more politically conservative world view along with an emphasis on traditional Judeo-Christian beliefs. Members of the state board argued that the previous standards reflected a politically liberal world view and that the board needed to bring balance to the standards. Because of national criticism changes were made but on a limited scale. The purpose of this study was to assess if the rewritten standards demonstrated a politically conservative preference as well as an emphasis on Judeo-Christian beliefs. During the analysis I included information regarding a preference for capitalism, a focus on Texas and U.S. history while minimizing world history and a focus on memorization rather than critical thinking. The analysis revealed that the rewritten standards demonstrate a politically conservative leaning while promoting traditional Judeo-Christian beliefs. Analysis and research further revealed that the standards promote capitalism while limiting the study of other economic systems in the world. In regards to the preference for Texas and U.S. history versus world history my analysis confirmed a limited presence of world history; however, research also revealed that this issue is not limited to the state of Texas, but a number of other states in the U.S. Finally, my analysis demonstrated that many of the standards' objectives begin with verbs found on verb lists from Bloom's Taxonomy. By using Bloom's Taxonomy I learned that a majority of objectives throughout the K-12 standards operate in the lower half of the Taxonomy rather than the upper half meaning that there is an emphasis on lower order thinking skills rather than higher order thinking skills.
From a thesaurus standard to a general knowledge organization standard?!Kless, Daniel; Tudhope, Douglas S. (Networked Knowledge Organization Systems and Services (NKOS), 2007-09)It is more than 30 years ago that the guidelines ISO 2788 and 5964 were developed for the design of thesauri â basically to meet the demands of bibliographic databases and libraries. The last revision of the standards dates around 20 years back. Information technology has changed the usage of thesauri â a development that has motivated many changes in BS 8723, the first successor of ISO 2788 and 5964. Not only has the world of thesauri and libraries matured. Ever since there have been defined a variety of structured vocabularies, thesauri being just one of them: ontologies, taxonomies, classification schemes, topic maps â just to name some of them. For these types of vocabularies there hardly exist rules for the construction of the vocabulary content comparable to those for thesauri. There are standards for the formal description of some vocabulary types at most, e.g. SKOS, Topic Maps, RDF. The guidelines in Parts 1 and 2 of BS 8723 and its predecessors are, unfortunately, not simply applicable on vocabularies other than thesauri. The degree to which this is reasonable has not been analysed. Thus, applications using structured vocabularies other than thesauri lack guidance for the construction of the vocabulary content. The developments in BS 8723 â particularly those in the forthcoming Part 3, "Vocabularies other than thesauri" â try to catch up that knowledge gap. However, these vocabulary types are treated in much less detail than thesauri. Part 3 seems rather a detour from thesauri than a standard for other vocabularies. BS 8723 will basically remain a thesaurus standard, particularly in terms of its rules for construction. The further development of BS 8723 as an ISO standard (ISO 25964) is a chance to continue the transformation of a once thesaurus-only standard to a truly general knowledge organization standard. The most important reasons that encourage such strategy are: - While some of the rules from the thesaurus standard will have to be modified, a significant number of rules can be expected to apply directly to other types of structured vocabularies. So it makes sense to keep them in a single standard. - It is easier to develop rules for different structured vocabularies if being put in contrast to thesauri. The thesaurus standards are based on decades of extensive experience and include also knowledge about "what is relevant to cover". - It is highly useful to give general guidance in choosing the right type of structured vocabulary before the structured vocabularies are detailed. - Bringing together various disciplines avoids the reinvention of knowledge and strengthens "knowledge structuring" as a professional discipline. - A higher differentiation of knowledge structures / vocabularies can be expected resulting in more efficient and purpose-oriented development of vocabularies. The resulting and certainly greatest benefit from a true "multi-vocabulary" standard is the interest of industry and many other disciplines than library science. Thus, the relevance of the standard will be increased. Examples for potential application areas of a common standard are: - Skill catalogs in competence management - Visualizations of the organizational structure - The directory structures in computer file systems (particularly shared folders) - Categorizations (typology) of files in a Document Management System - Description of knowledge assets in knowledge management tools - Categorization systems (typology) of music or picture archives - Knowledge maps - Corporate Encyclopaedias - Vocabularies for search expansion in search engines - The navigation structure, labelling system and the metadata on web sites - The Table of content and / or the index of a book or complex document