A Case for Waste Fraud and Abuse: Stopping the Air Force from Purchasing Spacecraft That Fail Prematurely
Launch Vehicle Failure
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AbstractSpacecraft and launch vehicle reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures and surprise equipment failures that increase risk and decrease safety, mission assurance and effectiveness. Large, complex aerospace systems such as aircraft, launch vehicle and satellites are first subjected to most exhaustive and comprehensive acceptance testing program used in any industry and yet suffer from the highest premature failure rates. Desired/required spacecraft equipment performance is confirmed during factory testing using telemetry, however equipment mission life requirement is not measured but calculated manually and so the equipment that will fail prematurely are not identified and replaced before use. Spacecraft equipment mission-life is not measured and confirmed before launch as performance is but calculated using stochastic equations from probability reliability analysis engineering standards such as MIL STD 217. The change in the engineering practices used to manufacture and test spacecraft necessary to identify the equipment that will fail prematurely include using a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. A PHM includes using predictive algorithms to convert equipment telemetry into a measurement of equipment remaining usable life. A PHM makes the generation, collection, storage and engineering and scientific analysis of equipment performance data "mission critical" rather than just nice-to-have engineering information.
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STOPPING LAUNCH PAD DELAYS, LAUNCH FAILURES, SATELLITE INFANT MORTALITIES AND ON ORBIT SATELLITE FAILURES USING TELEMETRY PROGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGYLosik, Len (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)Telemetry Prognostics is Failure Prediction using telemetry for launch vehicle and satellite space flight equipment to stop launch failures, launch pad delays, satellite infant mortalities and satellite on orbit failures. This technology characterizes telemetry behaviors that are latent, transient, and go undetected by the most experienced engineering personnel and software diagnostic tools during integration and test, launch operations and on orbit activities stopping launch pad delays, launch failures, infant mortalities and on orbit failures. Telemetry prognostics yield a technology with state-of-the-art innovative techniques for determining critical on-board equipment remaining useful life taking into account system states, attitude reorientations, equipment usage patterns, failure modes and piece part failure characteristics to increase the reliability, usability, serviceability, availability and safety of our nation’s space systems.
Using OASIS Data to Assess Moderator Effects of Patient Characteristics on Telemonitoring Outcomes in Heart Failure PatientsVallina, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2009)This study had two purposes: 1) to compare the difference between home health care only and home health care plus telemonitoring on heart failure patients' symptom burden, self-care of heart failure and re-hospitalization; and 2) to explore which patient characteristics might moderate telemonitoring's impact.Heart failure has emerged as a major public health burden. Like other chronic conditions, heart failure patients have an important role to play in the day-to-day management of their condition. One of the principal reasons for introducing telemonitoring in home health care was to increase heart failure patients' capacity to self-manage their conditions at home.This study used a prospective, non-experimental, comparative, descriptive design. A total of 68 participants were recruited with 34 in each group. Symptom burden and self-care of heart failure were measured on enrollment and 40 days later. Hospitalization was measured as an event that either occurred or did not occur.Although no between-group differences in symptom burden were found, both groups showed significant decreased symptom burden over the 40-day period. Of the three self-care measures, only self-care maintenance differed significantly between the two groups at the 40-day follow-up (p<.05). Only the participant's functional status had significant moderator effect on the relation between type of service received and self-care maintenance (p<.05).The addition of telemonitoring produced similar outcomes to regular home health care, except for self-care maintenance. Like most prior study, this study focused on evaluating the overall relationship between telemonitoring and outcomes without concern for the transformation process. Although these evaluation were able to provide an overall assessment of whether or not the telemonitoring program worked, they cannnot identify the underlying mechanisms that generate the effects. Without knowing what make the program work or not work, it is difficult to pinpoint what needs to be done for future improvement. A theory-oriented evaluation will be needed in future research. Theory-oriented evaluation not only allow reseachers to clarify the connection between a program's operation and its effect, but also to specify intermediate effects of a program that might become evident and measurable.
Characterization of Residual Ovarian Tissue in Mice following 4-vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-induced Ovarian FailureCraig, Zelieann Rivera (The University of Arizona., 2009)Menopause is associated with disorders such as osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. It is unclear whether the postmenopausal ovary retains steroidogenic capacity and how it can impact the development of these disorders. The present studies used the VCD-treated follicle-depleted mouse model of menopause to test the hypothesis that residual ovarian tissue retains steroidogenic capacity following ovarian failure and, thus, affects the development of these disorders. Microarray technology was used to evaluate gene expression in residual ovarian tissue of follicle-depleted mice compared to that in ovaries from cycling animals. Among the genes identified were those encoding proteins for synthesis of androgens. Steroidogenic capacity of residual ovarian tissue was further evaluated by determining the expression of genes and proteins involved in ovarian steroidogenesis, and by measuring levels of circulating and rostenedione and gonadotropins. Follicle-depleted ovaries were enriched in mRNAs for androgenic enzymes, receptors involved in the internalization of cholesterol, and luteinizing hormone receptor. Increased circulating levels of FSH and LH and detectable and rostenedione were measured throughout the study. Protein for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17α- hydroxylase/17,20-lyase and luteinizing hormone receptor was detected in follicledepleted ovaries by Western blot analysis and localized by immunofluorescence staining. The contribution of retaining residual ovarian tissue to accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure was evaluated by comparing bone mineral density from young and aged VCD-treated mice to that in age-matched ovariectomized (OVX) animals. Retaining residual ovarian tissue resulted in protection against accelerated bone loss in young but not aged VCD-treated mice. Whether residual ovarian tissue is more susceptible to development of ovarian neoplasms compared to ovaries from cycling animals was addressed by combining the VCD-treated mouse with the DMBA model of ovarian carcinogenesis. VCD-treated follicle-depleted mice that received DMBA developed Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors while no tumors were observed in cycling animals. Residual ovarian tissue following ovarian failure appears to have a protective effect against loss of bone integrity, but a detrimental effect on development of ovarian neoplasms. Findings from these studies: provided evidence of a physiological role for residual ovarian tissue following ovarian failure, and furthered the use of the VCD-treated mouse as a relevant model for menopause and associated disorders.