AuthorKosakowsky, Laura J.
KeywordsCuello Site (Belize)
Indian pottery -- Belize.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Belize.
Indians of Central America -- Belize -- Antiquities.
Mayas -- Antiquities.
Belize -- Antiquities.
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RightsCopyright © Arizona Board of Regents
Collection InformationThis title from the Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona collection is made available by the University of Arizona Press and University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions about this title, please contact the UA Press at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/.
PublisherUniversity of Arizona Press (Tucson, AZ)
Description"This monograph adds important data on the development of Preclassic period ceramics in northern Belize."—American Antiquity"This book contributes to our understanding of early Maya society during an era that has only new been revealed."—The Chesopiean"Kosakowsky's book, produced in the clear, easy-to-read and well designed format . . . is a substantive contribution to Maya ceramic studies."—Journal of Latin American Studies
Table of ContentsPreface / Summary of the 1980 Excavation / Definition of Terms / Comparisons with the Cuello Ceramic Analysis by Duncan Pring / Type Descriptions (Swasey? Ceramic Sphere) / Type Descriptions (Xe? Ceramic Sphere) / Mortuary Vessels / Differentiating Features Between the Swasey and Bladen Ceramic Complexes / Type Descriptions (Mamom Ceramic Sphere) / Cocos Ceramic Complex / Type Descriptions (Chicanel Ceramic Sphere) / Mortuary Vessels / Early Ceramic Complexes in the New World / Ceramic Development at Cuello / References / Index / Abstract
Series/Report no.Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 47
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Shifting Allegiances at La Milpa, Belize: A Typological, Chronological, and Formal Analysis of the CeramicsSagebiel, Kerry Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2005)The primary goal of this dissertation is to present an outline of the culture history of the site of La Milpa and its immediate sustaining area through the elaboration and elucidation of a ceramic chronology and typology. However, an equally important aspect of this dissertation is a thorough critique of the type-variety/mode (T-V) system of classification upon which Maya ceramic analysis has been based over the last forty years. The analysis presented here was completed using a relational database (Microsoft Access). By using this database program, it became clear that it is necessary to rethink the basis and use of the type-variety system and how (or whether) it can be adapted as a tool for use in database driven analysis.
Maya Wetlands: Ecology and Pre-Hispanic Utilization of Wetlands in Northwestern BelizeBaker, Jeffrey Lee (The University of Arizona., 2003)In this dissertation, I examine several issues related to the pre-hispanic utilization of wetlands by the Maya. Fourteen hypotheses associated with one model of wetland utilization, the Pohl-Bloom model are tested in this dissertation. The Pohl-Bloom model views the use of wetlands as being restricted in time and space, with wetlands only being utilized in the Preclassic along the Rio Hondo drainage. Rising sea levels caused a rise in the freshwater table, which ultimately forced the Maya to abandon their wetland fields at the end of the Preclassic. Patterns observed in wetlands outside of the Rio Hondo drainage are, according to this model, the remnant of natural features called gilgai. Before examining the Pohl-Bloom model several related aspects of tropical ecology and wetland ecology were examined, including deforestation and climatic change. Though deforestation can influence regional water tables, the deforestation in the Maya area appears to be to have been too early to have had any significant impact on wetland agriculture. Climate change is currently a major topic in Maya studies, with drought conceivably having an influence on wetland agriculture. The present examination of the climatic data, however, that there is not a good correlation between the timing of droughts and the timing of significant changes in Maya culture. Evidence is also presented that questions the reliability of the isotopic data that has been used to study climatic change in the Maya Lowlands. Examination of the Pohl-Bloom model resulted in rejection of all fourteen hypotheses. The available evidence on sea level changes indicates that water levels in the Preclassic were dropping, not rising, while there is no evidence for changes in the water table during the Preclassic. The environmental factors present in the Maya Lowlands are simply not capable of creating large rectilinear gilgai. Similarly, the shallow slopes and absence of the sorting of sediments by size can be used to rule erosion as a major factor in the creation of the wetland stratigraphies. Based upon the available evidence, it is argued that raised fields were utilized throughout northern Belize, having their most widespread distribution in the Late Classic Period.
Rural society and economic development: British mercantile capital in nineteenth-century Belize.Cal, Angel Eduardo. (The University of Arizona., 1991)Nineteenth-century European industrialization increased the demand for raw resources available in sub-tropical regions. The eastern coast of Central America and the Bay of Campeche had an ample supply of dyewoods used in the textile industry, and mahogany, a durable and precious wood used in the production of railway cars and furniture. British mercantile capital linked the various peoples and activities that were involved in the extractive industry and in the short-lived sugarcane and banana industries. The pre-Columbian regional economic block based on resources such as salt was taken over by the Spaniards during the Contact period. But the tenuous Iberian hold gave way to persistent British buccaneers turned loggers. Eventually, though, British mercantile firms took over the business. These firms monopolized the land, credit and the import business, and exerted considerable influence on the local state. This enclave economy essentially "created" its society, bringing in African slaves and attracting laborers from the region: Garifuna, Miskito, Mestizo and Maya. The Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901) also sent some 15,000 refugees mostly peasants into Belize. Indentured workers were imported from the 1860s. Except for the blacks, most of the workers and peasants established settlements in the rural areas. The relationship between capital and labor and between capital and the peasantry was marked by both conflict and accommodation. Whereas the firms tried to secure a reliable, cheap, and submissive labor force and tried to "proletarianize" the peasantry with the help of state-backed mechanisms, the nature of the industry: the cultural norms of the Maya peasantry, for example, the strategic alliances among the groups at the frontier and the limited supply of labor made it difficult for capital to have its way. In fact, the Maya's determination to block further British expansion in the northwest eventually undermined the level of business confidence necessary to operate in a turbulent frontier. Mercantile capital withdrew when faced by declining prices. Many workers were repeasantized.