ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The International Telemetering Conference/USA (ITC/USA) is dedicated to the promotion and stimulation of technical growth in telemetering and its allied arts and sciences. It is the premier annual forum and technical exhibition providing telemetry specific short courses, technical papers from professionals and students, and exhibits of the industry’s leading companies. ITC/USA is sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering (IFT), a non-profit corporation dedicated to serving the technical and professional interests of the telemetering community.

This collection contains the proceedings of the thirty-sixth International Telemetering Conference, October 23-26, 2000. The conference, sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering, was held at the Town & Country Hotel and Conference Center in San Diego, California.

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Recent Submissions

  • HARDWARE- VS. SOFTWARE-DRIVEN REAL-TIME DATA ACQUISITION

    Powell, Richard; Kuhn, Jeff; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    There are two basic approaches to developing data acquisition systems. The first is to buy or develop acquisition hardware and to then write software to input, identify, and distribute the data for processing, display, storage, and output to a network. The second is to design a system that handles some or all of these tasks in hardware instead of software. This paper describes the differences between software-driven and hardware-driven system architectures as applied to real-time data acquisition systems. In explaining the characteristics of a hardware-driven system, a high-performance real-time bus system architecture developed by L-3 will be used as an example. This architecture removes the bottlenecks and unpredictability that can plague software-driven systems when applied to complex real-time data acquisition applications. It does this by handling the input, identification, routing, and distribution of acquired data without software intervention.
  • BACKWARD PROPAGATION BASED ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE IMAGE FORMATION

    Lee, Hua; Lockwood, Stephanie; Tandon, James; Brown, Andrew; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    In this paper, we present the recent results of theoretical development and software implementation of a complete collection of high-performance image reconstruction algorithms designed for high-resolution imaging for various data acquisition configurations.
  • A COMPARISON OF VIDEO COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS

    Thom, Gary A.; Deutermann, Alan R.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Compressed video is necessary for a variety of telemetry requirements. A large number of competing video compression algorithms exist. This paper compares the ability of these algorithms to meet criteria which are of interest for telemetry applications. Included are: quality, compression, noise susceptibility, motion performance and latency. The algorithms are divided into those which employ inter-frame compression and those which employ intra-frame compression. A video tape presentation will also be presented to illustrate the performance of the video compression algorithms.
  • REAL-TIME SPECTRALLY EFFICIENT TARGET IMAGING

    McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Shnitser, P.; Agurok, I.; Sandomirsky, S.; Avakian, A.; Air Force Flight Test Center; Physical Optics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    To enhance the visibility of remote objects under test at Air Force testing facilities in adverse weather conditions, the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, California, contracted with Physical Optics Corporation’s (POC) Applied Technology Division, Torrance CA, to investigate a realtime spectrally enhanced imaging prototype system. When installed on an optical target tracker, this system will automatically adjust its spectral transmission in such a way that the intensity of the background illumination will be reduced significantly while providing minimum reduction of the light reflected from a detected target. A laboratory prototype of this system was developed under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I contract. The prototype consists of the optical part that will be attached to the large tracker lens and to a portable computer. The key element of this system is an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) that is capable of quickly varying the shape of its spectral transmission curve in the entire visible range under computer control. The developed system automatically analyzes the spectral signatures of the background and of the selected object of interest. It calculates a spectrally matched filter for the background suppression and target contrast enhancement. This filtered data then goes directly into the optical channel with the minimal computer image processing. The resulting image with the enhanced target contrast can be displayed in real time on a common computer monitor and can be recorded by a VCR. The performance of the laboratory prototype demonstrated enhancement of the visibility of objects immersed in a scattering medium. Successful development of a working system will make flight testing of military equipment more informative and less expensive. It will reduce the dependence of the flight test program on the weather conditions and will allow for collecting more data by providing real-time images with enhanced target visibility.
  • REMOTE ATMOSPHERIC VISIBILITY MONITORING RAVM

    McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Lutomirski, Richard; Edwards Air Force Base; LAZINT, LCC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Test ranges need advanced knowledge of visibility conditions to increase the robustness of the test data collection and evaluation process. For any given test, the ability to capture high-resolution performance data of aircraft using ground-based film theodolites and electro-optical imaging sensors is subject to uncertainties in imaging capability permitted by the intervening atmosphere. The Remote Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring (RAVM) project is being developed as a suite of three collocated optical sensors that measure the components of atmosphere-induced image degradation. When the component measurements are combined, a ‘transfer function’ is obtained that can project the quality of imaging data without an aircraft being present. The resulting predicted imagery provides valuable pre mission information that can be analyzed and reviewed before incurring expensive fieldtest operations. The RAVM project is a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program that is developing an instrument for providing an atmospheric visibility measurement capability to support range scheduling and test operations. This advanced capability will monitor ‘effective visibility’ in the context of imaging extended targets, such as aircraft, and predicting the degrading effects of the atmosphere on imaging sensors operating in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • EMBEDDED VIDEO TRANSMISSION IN A CAIS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

    Brauer, David A.; L-3 Communications Telemetry-East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Acquiring real-time video data, during flight testing, has become an integral component in aircraft design and performance evaluation. This unique data acquisition capability has been successfully integrated into the JSF (Joint Strike Fighter), CAIS compliant, FTIDAS (Flight Test Instrumentation Data Acquisition System) developed by L-3 Communications Telemetry-East.
  • AFFORDABLE, ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR MEETING CIVIL AVIATION REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM) REQUIRMENTS ON MILITARY/COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT

    Pratt, Robert L.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    A recent Air Traffic Management (ATM) initiative has reduced certain oceanic routes from a 2,000-foot vertical separation minimum to a 1,000-foot (300 m) separation minimum between flight levels of 29,000 feet and 41,000 feet. As a result of this initiative, an aircraft transitioning from the Continental United States (CONUS) to Europe or Asia will be required to have a validated, certified altimeter reporting system within the specified tolerances. The aging military airframes are not currently Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) certified. The impact on military deployment time to foreign theatres as well as high- fuel cost makes this a high-priority DoD issue. This paper describes the test and evaluation (T&E) challenge, viable solutions and test method for meeting the RVSM requirements in an approved, affordable, and least down-time (minimal aircraft modification) manner. The test method described herein utilizes a PACER aircraft in formation with the RVSM candidate aircraft. The RVSM is just one of the many Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) requirements which must be met for military aircraft to fly within premium airspace during overseas deployment. The commercial equivalent of GATM is Communications Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). Our focus will be on meeting the RVSM certification requirements as related to the test environment.
  • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS TEST FACILITY AND AVIONICS SYSTEM TEST (ACTFAST): GEARING UP FOR NEXT GENERATION AVIONICS SYSTEMS TESTING

    Switzer, Earl; Whelan, Michael; Lagunas, Farncisco; Air Force Flight Test Center; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Growth in civil aviation is overwhelming worldwide airspace and air traffic services. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) are proposing or implementing numerous changes to address this growth. The changes are broadly contained in what the civil aviation community calls Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and the DoD calls Global Air Traffic Management (GATM). A major component of both civil and DoD proposed changes are data link systems digitally transmitting information between aircraft, air traffic control centers, and aircraft operations centers. The real-time interactive nature of these data-link systems and the integration of the aircraft avionics into a worldwide network are forcing aircraft test agencies to acquire access to this capability. Aircraft flighttesting must address both the specific aircraft avionics test requirements and the system-of-systems aspects of data-link applications. This paper describes the factors driving changes in the worldwide CNS/ATM system and identifies specific proposed or implemented changes. Various flight-test requirements, both civil and military, of the proposed changes are enumerated. Particular attention is paid to the DoDs GATM certification requirements. Finally, we present the Air Traffic Control Communications Test Facility and Avionics System Test (ACTFAST) program and explain its capabilities. Rationale for ACTFAST component parts is included along with a brief outline of how the capabilities represented by each component part are used during flight test to acquire the necessary information to meet civil and DoD aircraft certification requirements.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF THE VHF AIR/GROUNG DATA LINK FOR CAAC

    Qing, Zhong; Qi-shan, Zhang; Xingjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    The VHF air/ground data link of CAAC is introduced in detail. This paper proposes a solution of VHF air/ground data link system, which exchanges downlink messages and uplink messages in data link information processing networks. The following topics are covered in this paper: components of VHF data link; data processing and design about VHF data link Gateway system; the application of VHF air/ground data link in airlines.
  • GPS RECEIVER SELECTION AND TESTING FOR LAUNCH AND ORBITAL VEHICLES

    Schrock, Ken; Freestone, Todd; Bell, Leon; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center’s Bantam Robust Guidance Navigation & Control Project is investigating off the shelf navigation sensors that may be inexpensively combined into Kalman filters specifically tuned for launch and orbital vehicles. For this purpose, Marshall has purchased several GPS receivers and is evaluating them for these applications. The paper will discuss the receiver selection criteria and the test equipment used for evaluation. An overview of the analysis will be presented including the evaluation used to determine their success or failure. It will conclude with goals of the program and a recommendation for all GPS users.
  • DESIGN OF A GPS/TELEMETRY ANTENNA FOR SMALL DIAMETER PROJECTILES

    Ryken, Marv; Davis, Rick; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    In the past, airplanes, target drones, pods, and large missiles have been instrumented with telemetry, flight termination and beacon tracking antennas to assess performance. With the emerging use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for tracking purposes, GPS is also included as part of the instrumentation package. This paper addresses the design of a conformal wraparound antenna system to cover the telemetry and GPS L1 frequencies for a small (2.75 inch) diameter airborne projectile. A filter is also integrated into the antenna system to isolate the transmitted telemetry signal from the received GPS signal. This integration is necessary due to the lack of space in the small diameter projectile. Performance characteristics of the prototype antenna system are also presented.
  • PHASE CENTER MEASUREMENTS FOR A WRAP-AROUND GPS ANTENNA

    Meyer, Steven J.; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is being used as a sensor in telemetry systems to provide time, space and position information (TSPI) as well as end game or vector scoring. The accuracy of these measurements depends on precisely locating the phase center of the GPS antenna. A procedure has not currently been addressed by anyone to measure the phase center of a conformal wrap-around GPS antenna. This paper will discuss some techniques on determining the antenna phase center.
  • SUBMINIATURE GPS INERTIAL TIME SPACE POSITION INFORMATION

    Khosrowabadi, Allen; Gurr, Richard; Fleishans, Amy; TYBRIN Corporation; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    In the past few years, GPS has proven itself as an effective source of time space position information (TSPI) data for air vehicles. Currently, GPS truth systems are used to track aircraft ranging from low dynamic vehicles to high dynamic fighters. However, low-cost GPS TSPI instrumentation is not currently available for stores and weapons delivered by air vehicles. To date, data is collected by tracking dropped items using radar or optical means. This process is costly and time consuming. The purpose of this project is to leverage the recent advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a subminiature, inexpensive, low power, disposable telemetrytransmitting package. The purpose of this transmitting package is to up-link the GPS positional data from the weapon or store to the host aircraft. This data is then retransmitted by the host aircraft to a ground station and/or recorded on board for post processing. The transmission of the data to the host aircraft can provide near real- time position data for the released object. The transmitting package must have a unique identification method for application in tracking multiple objects. Since most of the systems used in weapons testing will be destroyed, it is extremely important to keep the development and maintenance cost low. In addition, the package must be non-intrusive to avoid any significant modification to the weapon and to facilitate quick instrumentation of the weapon for test and evaluation.
  • INVESTIGATION OF TELEMETRY AND GPS COMPATIBILITY

    Law, Eugene; Kingery, Ronald; Cramer, Dave; NAWCWD; Evolving Resources Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Several test programs have reported degraded Global Positioning System (GPS) performance when L-band (1435-1535 MHz) telemetry is used while other test programs have had acceptable GPS performance with L-band telemetry. Most test programs seem to have minimal problems with S-band telemetry interfering with GPS performance if a bandpass filter is used between the GPS antenna and the low noise amplifier (LNA). This paper will present measured data on GPS performance with L- and S-band telemetry and explain what must be done to minimize interference to GPS. The paper will present both GPS signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) values as well as measured spectra from telemetry transmitters. System design guidelines for compatible operation will be presented.
  • EVALUATION OF GPS RECEIVER PERFORMANCE UNDER HIGH DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Cunningham, James P.; Khoe, Paula K.; Hermann, Bruce R.; Evans, Alan G.; Merts, John H.; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division; USAF Air Armament Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors have the potential to provide precise position, velocity, and timing information in high dynamic applications. Missile flight-testing is one such application where accurate relative positions are important. GPS instrumentation can provide the high accuracy while offering both significant cost savings and improved confidence in the test results when compared to existing methods. To date, the use of GPS in missile flight-testing has been limited due to a lack of demonstrated GPS receiver tracking capability in high dynamics. This paper evaluates several currently available GPS receivers for both their tracking capability and their measurement accuracy in high dynamic environments.
  • TIME SYNCHRONIZATION IN FLIGHT TEST DATA ANALYSIS

    Von Zuben, Francis S. G.; David, Alfred S., Jr.; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    A recurring problem in flight testing navigation systems is the need for an accurate, common time reference for the system under test and for the truth source to which it is compared. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company and Computer Sciences Corporation have developed software that utilizes all available timing information to reference the times of validity for each navigation measurement to Coordinated Universal Time. This permits accurate comparison and correlation of data necessary for statistical error analysis of the navigation system.
  • Y2K AND GPS WNRO: A FITTING FINALE TO THE SECOND MILLENNIUM

    Claflin, Ray, III; Claflin Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    This paper discusses the successful passage past the Year 2000 (Y2K) Rollover and GPS 1999 (Week Number Roll Over) WNRO. The reasons the glitches seen at those events were relatively minor and the lessons learned to help enter the Third Millennium with careful optimism are reviewed.
  • TELEMETRY AND JUGGLING

    Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    One of the beauties of mathematics is its ability to demonstrate the relationship between apparently unrelated subjects. And this is not only an aesthetic attribute. The insight obtained by seeing relations where they are not obvious often leads to elegant solutions to difficult problems. This paper will demonstrate a mathematical relation between telemetry and juggling. Any given pulse code modulation (PCM) format can be mapped onto a juggling pattern. The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Class I PCM formats are a subset of all juggling patterns while the Class II PCM formats are equivalent to the set of all juggling patterns (within some mathematically precise definitions). There are actually quite a few mathematical results regarding juggling patterns. This paper will also discuss how these topics relate to tessellations, bin packing, PCM format design, and dynamic spectrum allocation. One of the shortcomings of human nature is the tendency to get caught up in a particular topic or viewpoint. This is true of the telemetry community as well. It is hoped that this paper will increase the awareness that there are a variety of areas of theory outside of telemetry that may be applicable to the field.
  • RANGE UPGRADE FOR DATA RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION

    Nystrom, Ingemar; Gatton, Tim; AerotechTelub Miltest AB; Veridian Systems Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    Flexible data multiplexing that supports both low-speed (4 Mbps) to very high-speed output devices (networks and recording systems up to 480 Mbps), along with data network formatting, can greatly enhance the results of range upgrading.
  • PROPULSIVE SMALL EXPENDABLE DEPLOYER SYSTEM (PROSEDS) MISSION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM OVERVIEW

    Kennedy, Paul; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft telemetry system. The ProSEDS telemetry subsystem employs a combination of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and launch vehicle telemetry system components to minimize costs as well as power consumption. Several measures were used to aid the conservation of spacecraft power resources. First, the transmitter was modified to limit input power consumption to less that 20 watts while providing approximately two watts Radio Frequency (RF) output power. Secondly, the ProSEDS on board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is being used to control input power to the transmitter in order to limit the telemetry operations to occasions when the spacecraft is in proximity to preprogrammed ground station locations.

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