ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The International Telemetering Conference/USA (ITC/USA) is dedicated to the promotion and stimulation of technical growth in telemetering and its allied arts and sciences. It is the premier annual forum and technical exhibition providing telemetry specific short courses, technical papers from professionals and students, and exhibits of the industry’s leading companies. ITC/USA is sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering (IFT), a non-profit corporation dedicated to serving the technical and professional interests of the telemetering community.

This collection contains the proceedings of the forty-first International Telemetering Conference, October 24-27, 2005. The conference, sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering, was held at the Riviera Hotel & Convention Center in Las Vegas, Nevada.

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Recent Submissions

  • PLANNING FOR NON-INTRUSIVE & EMBEDDED INSTRUMENTATION

    Carpenter, Robert E.; Schneider, Dennis; ATSS, Inc.; U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation Training, & Instumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    Embedded Instrumentation (EI) and Non-Intrusive Instrumentation (NII) integrates data collection and processing capabilities into the design of a system for diagnostics, prognostics, testing, and training. EI and NII will provide decision makers with the data needed to adequately describe performance and mitigate risks throughout a programs lifecycle. DoD weapon systems have become very complex, with intricate electronics and guidance requirements to meet the mission. Many platforms, such as Army munitions, no longer have the internal space to append instrumentation after they are sent for testing, yet the data needs from a complex weapon system have increased, with the need to understand the operational health and characteristics of many sophisticated electronics systems within the weapon system. Furthermore, the developer must ensure the platform used for test or for training is representative of the full up tactical system to retain integrity. Recent implementation of policy changes will allow responsible activities to have test, training and logistical resources shared at the program concept and maintain the integrity of lifecycle requirements. To assure success, EI/NII must be planned for at the beginning of the acquisition phase, with capabilities needed and costs / benefits considered. There have been significant advances in miniaturized telemetry and instrumentation technology, such as ASIC based transmitters and encoders, however there are still needed improvements to reduce the size and cost of embedded instrumentation components. Failing to continue to foster the on-going development of EI/NII technologies, and failing to foster the incorporation of such systems into new weapons could ultimately hinder the success of initiatives such as Army transformation and could certainly raise the costs associated with development, fielding, and operation of complex weapons.
  • A HIGHLY INTEGRATED TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE EXCALIBUR PROJECTILE

    Oder, Stephen; Dearstine, Christina; Muir, John; Semuskie, Stephen; Fratta, Ralph; DiCristina, Stephen; M/A-COM, Inc.; Raytheon Missile Systems; U.S. Army Research Development Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    A miniature 1 Watt Tactical Telemetry Module (TTM) has been developed for the Excalibur projectile program. The TTM incorporates a multi-channel PCM encoder, lower S-band transmitter, and power regulation onto a single printed wiring board (PWB). The PCM encoder is designed for eight (8) analog inputs, four (4) discrete inputs, and one (1) synchronous RS-422 serial interface, with a total data rate of 1 Mbps. The module incorporates a digitally programmable, phase-locked FM S-band transmitter. The transmitter utilizes M/A-COM’s new dual port VCO and a high efficiency 2 W power amplifier MMIC. Additionally, switching power regulation circuits were implemented within the module to provide maximum operating efficiency. This paper reviews the environmental requirements of Excalibur, the design of the Excalibur TTM, and presents electrical and air-gun test data.
  • INSTRUMENTED BALLISTIC TEST PROJECTILE

    Flyash, Boris; Platovskiy, Steve; Cantatore, Dominick; Picatinny Arsenal (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    For years, ballisticians have been studying the phenomena associated with cannon launched projectiles. In particular, is the study of the pressure internal to the cannon and about the base of the projectile during cannon launch through muzzle exit. Pressure on the base is thought to be uniform and therefore hydrostatic, even though there are undulations in the magnitude of the pressure from the burning propellant. This paper studies various phenomena of the launching of 155-mm artillery projectiles with slip band obturators. Specifically, pressure gradients in and around the base and pressure along the body caused by obturator “blow-by” during the interior ballistic flight and muzzle exit. This study is accomplished by use of two different types of Instrumented Ballistic Test Projectiles (IBTP). The objective of tests performed was to successfully capture pressure and acceleration live data which will be used to characterize the localized base and body pressurization on a 155-mm artillery cannon launched projectile. The telemetry system used for these tests was the ARRT-124 telemetry system provided by the Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, specifically the Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division. The telemetry system used for the IBTP employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring and transmitting a number of analog channels. Preliminary captured data indicated localized fluctuations in pressure that are not uniform over the base and the projectile body. Further studying of the data may provide insight into other projectile dynamics such as fin deployment, set forward accelerations at muzzle exit, and obturator performance.
  • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROJECT JAMI SYSTEM INTEGRATION

    Powell, Dave; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI demonstrated significant improvement in the performance of low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware that can be used for world-wide test and training. Acquisition times of less than 3 seconds from a cold start and tracking dynamics to over 60Gs were demonstrated. The final production designs and flight testing results are discussed along with comparisons to the initial project requirements. A discussion of integration initiatives and implementation issues are included.
  • Using GPS for TSPI and Flight Termination Capabilities of a Missile Telemetry Section

    Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program involves the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking technology into the Test Ranges. GPS Technology will be used for Time, Space, and Position Information (TSPI) as well as Flight Termination purposes. JAMI is currently developing the JAMI TSPI Unit (JTU) and the Flight Termination Safe & Arm (FTS&A) devices. This paper will discuss the current efforts to integrate these JAMI components, off the shelf items (Flight Termination Receivers (FTR), Telemetry Transmitters, Encryptor and Thermal Batteries) and in-house developed devices (PCM Encoder, Tri-band Antenna with integrated Limiter, Filter, and Amplifier) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. The discussion of the transmission of the data and how the Test Ranges process it is beyond the scope of this paper and is covered in [1].
  • INTEGRATING THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION (JAMI) TIME SPACE POSITION INFORMATION (TSPI) UNIT (JTU) INTO A TELEMETRY SYSTEM

    Meyer, Steven J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The Joint Advance Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) program has developed a Time Space Position Information (TSPI) unit (JTU). The JTU employs a novel use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and inertial measurement units (IMU) to provide a real time trajectory for high dynamic missile systems. The GPS system can function during high g maneuvers that an air-to-air missile might encounter. The IMU is decoupled from the GPS sensor. The IMU data is a secondary navigation source for the JTU and will provide platform attitude. The GPS data and IMU data are sent to the ground in telemetry packet called TSPI Unit Message Structure (TUMS). The TUMS packet is sent to a computer that hosts the JAMI Data Processing (JDP) software, which performs a Kalmam filter on the GPS and IMU data to provide a real time TSPI solution to the range displays. The packetized TUMS data is available in three different output formats: RS-232 serial data, 16-bit parallel and PCM. This paper focuses on how to integrate the JTU into a telemetry system, use it as a standalone system, and provides examples of possible uses.
  • ACQUISITION AND TRANSMISSION OF SEISMIC DATA OVER PACKET RADIO

    Mayer, Gerhard; Hinterseer, Martin; Wegscheider, Christoph; University of Salzburg (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    Research on earthquakes and volcanos is of particular importance in seismic instable regions. To improve opportunities of research and civil defence, continuous coverage of seismic activities of a large area at a certain time is necessary. This paper deals with the issues concerning the collecting of environmental data by a number of autonomous field stations and their transmission to central station through a cost effective low bandwidth packer radio data network. This paper deals with the acquisition, preprocessing and transmission of seismic data. Therefore, a prototype system is discussed, which will be developed at the University of Salzburg, Austria.
  • OPTIMAL ENERGY-DELAY ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH TRUST LEVELS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Jagannathan, S.; Miller, Ann; Taqieddin, Eyad; University of Missouri-Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless nodes which do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Hosts cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to communicate with nodes that are out of the radio transmission range. We propose a new routing algorithm that is based on the concept of multipoint relay nodes (MPR). The main focus of the Trust Level Routing protocol is the reliability and survivability of the network by applying costs to each MPR candidate. The cost calculation is based on the delay incurred, energy available at the MPR node, energy spent during transmission and number of packets sent on each link. We highlight the vulnerabilities in current link state routing algorithms and propose the use of light weight encryption algorithms to achieve a dependable routing algorithm. Network simulator (ns-2) is used to compare the protocol performance to other existing link state routing protocols.
  • PERFORMANCE ISSUES IN MIXING CELLULAR AND MANET FOR iNET

    Dean, Richard; Babalola, Olusola; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    In the iNET community, communications between Test Articles (TA) and Ground Station (GS) can be over a long distance course that places a TA at ranges where they are sometimes beyond line-of-sight (LoS) or over-the-horizon communications with the GS. In other cases, the TA moves out of the LoS communications range of GS. There is a need to provide communications to these TA at these over-the-horizon locations. The Cellular and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) have attracted a lot of attention recently and the field continues to grow daily. The cellular network offers high capacity but limited in coverage due to its fixed base infrastructure. MANET on the other hand has a wide range of coverage and also high data rates, but its throughput performance is reduced at high capacity. The MANET cellular mixture network (MCMN) has been proposed to provide an extensive communications between the TA and GS in the iNET environment. This work presents a performance evaluation and analysis of the two different networks with respect to the performance needs of iNET environment which include coverage and throughput.
  • DESIGN OF A HIGH DYNAMIC GPS RECEIVER

    Bochuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Qing, Chang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    High dynamic and multi-channel digital GPS receiver can handle the signals with high dynamic range, low S/N ratio and refresh data quickly. A hardware design of high dynamic GPS digital receiver is given. Based on analysis of the effect that high dynamic movement makes on the receiving signals, a scheme of fast-acquisition high dynamic GPS receiver is presented. Exact reckoning of the orbit parameters and the satellite clock parameters are integrated with appropriate algorithms. A DDLL is used to precisely estimate the C/A code delay, a CPAFC loop and a Costas loop to precisely estimate the carrier frequency and phase. The DDLL is assisted with carrier phase. The experimental results show that the receiver meets the design request.
  • DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF DELAY MAPPING RECEIVER BASED ON GPS FOR SEA SURFACE WIND MEASUREMENT

    Ronglei, Hu; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; Yiqiang, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The Delay Mapping Receiver (DMR) is used for receiving and processing the reflected GPS signal to get the information of sea surface wind by recording and matching the data with the theoretical model. The hardware architecture and software design are described in detail in this paper. The test results at near sea of Tianjin of China are provided, which prove that the design of DMR is successful and the collected data are useful for the sea surface wind measurement.
  • DESIGN OF A SOFTWARE RADIO GPS RECEIVER

    Zhengxuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The GPS receiver based on software radio technology is a kind of general purpose GPS signal processing platform which makes use of advanced design ideas and advanced design tools nowadays. We used FPGA device and lots of necessary peripherals such as DSP and PCI controller in our design to promote flexibility and practicability effectively. Various fast acquisition means and accurate tracking algorithms could be realized, improved and validated on this platform, besides basic GPS receiver function.
  • SEA SURFACE SCATTERED GPS SIGNAL DETECTION AND APPLICATION

    Yi-qiang, Zhang; Qi-shan, Zhang; Dong-kai, Yang; Bo-chuan, Zhang; Rong-lei, Hu; Zi-wei, Li; BeiHang University; Beijing Spatial Port Geosystems Co. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    Background and advantages of GPS based Remote Sensing are introduced, characteristics of forward scattered GPS signal such as polarization change, cross-correlation power variation, code delay due to the wave travel distance difference between direct and scattered signal, and cross-correlation power expansion due to sea surface roughness are discussed in detail. Working principle of the self-developed delay-mapping receiver is also presented. First data collection campaign is done at Inshore of BOHAI ocean with the delay-mapping receiver mounted on an airplane. Results show that the reflected signals has much variation than the direct signals, the code delay of the reflected signals varies as the receiver height and satellite elevation angle changes and expansion of the cross-correlation due to the wind driven surface was also demonstrated.
  • STUDY ON HARDWARE REALIZATION OF GPS SIGNAL FAST ACQUISITION

    Beihang University; Lei, Huang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    In GPS receiver the acquisition process generates two important parameters: the initial carrier frequency and the initial phase of the C/A code. In this paper two different methods for acquisition are mainly discussed: serial search in the time domain and FFT search in the frequency domain. Frequency domain acquisition involves using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the GPS signals into the frequency domain. One fast and easy-to-implement algorithm for averaging correlation is implemented and explained in detail. The FFT search method is both simulated in Matlab and evaluated in Altera Stratix DSP development board.
  • A MODIFIED FOUR-QUADRANT FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATOR FOR CARRIER FREQUENCY ACQUISITION OF GPS RECEIVERS

    Tingyan, Yao; Weigang, Zhao; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The four-quadrant frequency discriminator (FQFD) plays an important role in GPS receivers for carrier synchronization. This paper presents a detailed study of the operating principle of the FQFD, and the acquisition performance degradation due to the gain fluctuation of the FQFD is discussed. A modified FQFD called the enveloped-four-quadrant frequency discriminator (Enveloped-FQFD) is proposed, which introduces an envelope calculator on the basis of the FQFD. Performance comparison of the FQFD and the Enveloped-FQFD is given through theoretical analysis and computer simulation. Simulation results show that by employing the Enveloped-FQFD, a quicker pull-in process and a wider threshold than the FQFD can be achieved, while the additional hardware costs are trivial.
  • Common Electrical Block CMOS-Based MEMS Sensors for Embedded Instrumentation

    D’Amico, William; Rebello, Keith J.; Park, Rudolph V.; Fedder, Gary K.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    As the need for embedded instrumentation (EI) grows in the military community, unique telemetry and sensor suites will be required. The typical path for combining sensors and telemetry is to select the packaged sensors for the required measurements and then to configure a separately packaged telemetry device. Today since die level telemetry systems are emerging, it should be considered that sensor suites are integrated at the die level with the telemetry components into a miniature and low power EI system.
  • HUMAN AND WORKFLOW ISSUES WITH SMART SENSOR NETWORKS

    Reiter, Mac; Jones, Charles H.; Nomadics, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    This paper presents methods of using standard PDAs, smart sensors, XML-based network and user interface descriptions, and graphical sensor network management to provide an installationto- use workflow. Techniques discussed will include: methods of providing additional capabilities to PDAs, methods of automatically constructing user interfaces based on constraints and requirements from both the sensor descriptions and the PDA capabilities description, and methods of providing more natural selection of sensors for test setup.
  • FLIGHT TEST INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE ADVANCED HAWKEYE LOADS RISK REDUCTION PROJECT

    Bedgar, Kenda J.; Cullison, Anthony J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    This paper is about the installation of the instrumentation system and the strain gages on an E-2C Hawkeye for the Advanced Hawkeye Loads Risk Reduction project. Background information on why this project came about will be given. Explanations on why the existing instrumentation system was modified to the current system will be presented. Anthony Cullison (co-author of this paper) will explain the installation of the strain gages.
  • UNDERSTANDING THE NON-CONTACT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY

    Jordan, Jorge, J.; Patuxent River Naval Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    The ability to accurately measure the temperature of different materials has always been a challenge for the Instrumentation Engineer. The use the classic contact type temperature detector such as thermocouples or RTD’s (Resistance Temperature Detectors) has not always shown to be the best approach to obtain the expected measurement. When not used carefully in closed environments, thermocouples and RTD’s could report the environmental temperature rather than the temperature from the product under examination. They are also temperature limited and when needed for applications above those limits, very expensive and low reliable materials are necessary to do the job. The use of non-contact thermometers has become the preferred choice for such applications. They have also come as a solution for the difficulties involved in the temperature measurements of moving targets. The industry has used portable and spot type infrared thermometers for some time, but the demand for better and more precise measurements has brought an incredible number of new products to the market. By means of advanced electronics and new software developments these products are used to cope with the difficulties of acquiring challenging measurements. Some of the same demands have made necessary the use of non-contact temperature measurement devices on aircraft instrumentation applications. The use of these capabilities has allowed the data acquisition community to get valuable data that was very difficult if not impossible to obtain before. In spite of all these facts, this promising emerging technology demands very careful attention before it is put to good use. The many products and solutions available do not accurately address every problem and the selection of the wrong technology for a specific task can prove to be fatal. The use of non-contact temperature devices is not an easy “off the shelf” pick but rather an option that demands knowledge of the infrared measurement theory as well as a complete understanding of the material under observation. The intention of this paper is to provide a practical understanding on the non-contact temperature measurement methods to the Aircraft Instrumentation Engineer who has not benefited from the use of this exiting technology.
  • DATA VALIDATION: A PREREQUISITE TO PERFORMING DATA UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

    Walter, Patrick L.; PCB Piezotronics; Texas Christian University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
    There are increasing demands, particularly from government agencies, to perform uncertainty analysis in order to assign accuracy bounds to telemetered data from environmental measuring transducers (pressure, acceleration, force, strain, temperature, etc.). Several requirements must be fulfilled before measurement uncertainty analysis is justified. These requirements include good measurement system design practices such as adequate low- and high-frequency response and data-sampling rates, appropriate anti-aliasing filter selection^(1), proper grounding and shielding, and many more. In addition, there are applications (e.g., flight test) in which the environment of the transducer varies with time and/or location. In these applications, it is a requisite that data-validation be performed to establish that an individual transducer responds only to the environmental stimulus that it is intended to measure. Without this validation component designed into the telemetry system, assigned accuracy bounds can be totally meaningless. This paper presents examples and describes techniques for data validation of signals from environmental measuring transducers.

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