• 3-D Ray-Tracing Simulations for 5.7GHz RF Indoor Position Location System

      Kosbar, Kurt; Annamraju, Venu; Burns, Thomas; University of Missouri-Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The objective of the project is to continuously track a handheld device in an office, with centimeter accuracy in the three dimensions. A 3-D ray-tracing algorithm has been developed to simulate the impulse response of the indoor channel. The algorithm can evaluate the impulse response at multiple receiver locations. Non-linear optimization has been used to eliminate the need for multiple runs of simulation. The optimization program also significantly reduces the number of rays launched. The algorithm incorporates bandwidth effects on multipath resolution of the system.
    • A 3D LINK ANALYSIS AND SELECTION OF A RECEIVE ANTENNA ANGLE IN TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Jang, Dhong Woon; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A three dimension (3D) link analysis is performed considering multipath effects caused by a reflected signal and the difference angle between the antenna bore-sight and Line-Of-Sight (LOS). In addition, a direction of a receive antenna is determined for a receiver to get maximum signal strength in a telemetry situation. For a fixed receive antenna, the angle is determined to maximize the average Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) over the interested part of a trajectory. For a tracking antenna, the angle at every position is selected to give maximum CNR or to direct the boresight to the flying projectile.
    • ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENTS WITH CPFSK, CPM AND FQPSK-B SIGNALS

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper will present measured data in an adjacent channel interference (ACI) environment for filtered continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK or FM), multi-h continuous phase modulation (multi-h CPM or CPM for short) [1] and Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-B) [2]. This paper is an extension of my 2001 International Telemetering Conference paper on this topic [3]. The quantity measured was bit error probability (BEP) versus signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (E(b)/N(o)). The interferers were CPFSK, CPM, or FQPSK-B signals. The results presented in this paper will be for a desired signal bit rate of 5 Mb/s, one interferer 20 dB larger than desired signal (a few tests included two interferers), and various center frequency spacings, interfering signals, receivers, and demodulators. The overall ACI test effort will collect data sets at several bit rates and with one and two interferers. The results will be useful to system designers and range operators as they attempt to maximize the number of Mb/s that can be simultaneously transmitted with minimal interference in the telemetry bands.
    • ADVANCED RANGE TELEMETRY (ARTM) TIER I COMPATIBLE DEMODULATOR TESTING AND RESULTS

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      The Nova HYPERMOD demodulator operates in three modes, the classic pulse-code modulation/frequency modulation (PCM/FM), sometimes known as continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK) mode, shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) mode, and continuous phase modulation (CPM) mode. Of interest to this paper is SOQPSK mode which is a waveform similar to the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Tier I waveform, Feher’s Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, B version (FQPSK-B) revision (Rev) A1. Also considered is another variant, FQPSK-JR. This paper will outline the cross compatibility and resynchronization speed of these waveforms based upon ARTM-adopted demodulator performance tests. The results of these laboratory tests comparing the HYPERMOD demodulator, the enhanced Tier I demodulator, and the current Tier I reference demodulator, both from RF Networks, will be presented.
    • ANALYSIS OF CYCLOSTATIONARY AND SPECTRAL CORRELATION OF FEHER-KEYING (FK) SIGNALS

      Chang, Soo-Young; Gonzalez, Maria C.; McCorduck, James A.; Feher, Kamilo; University of Suwon; University of California; Digcom, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Feher Keying (FK) signals are clock shaped baseband waveforms with the potential to attain very high spectral efficiencies. Two FK signals which have different level rectangular waveforms (named as FK-1) or sinusoidal waveforms (named as FK-2) for two binary symbols are considered in this paper. These signals have periodic components in the time domain. Therefore they have cyclostationary properties. This means that spectral correlation exists in the frequency domain. For each type of waveforms, spectral correlation has been investigated. FK signals can be expressed mathematically into two parts in the frequency domain – discrete part and continuous part. The discrete part has one or more discrete impulse(s) in their spectra and the continuous part has periodically the same shape of harmonics in their spectra. The correlations of their spectra have been obtained mathematically and by simulation. It is shown that FK signals have high correlation related to the symbol rate. Finally, some suggestions how these properties can be used to improve their performance by devising better demodulators are discussed. These properties can be used for interference rejection at the receiver, which results in low bit error rate performance.
    • APPLYING RULES FOR ISOCHRONOUS SAMPLING WITHIN ACQUISITION CYCLES TO ALL LEVELS OF FTI SYSTEM DEFINITION

      Fielding, Richard; McNelis, Aaron; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper examines two rules for data acquisition that have advantages for today's Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) systems where: • Data is acquired from physically separate test equipment • Deterministic (IRIG-106 (Ch. 4)) and non-deterministic networks co-exist • Data Acquisition Units (DAUs) from multiple vendors are required • Signal lists and sampling rates change rapidly • A time-coherent sampling strategy (even for smart sensors) is required These rules may aid not only in the selection of the data acquisition equipment but also the definition of the sampling, transmission, storage and analysis strategies.
    • AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS) SYSTEM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

      Boying, Lu; Jun, Zhang; Shuhui, Nie; Xinjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents the basic concept, construction principle and implementation work for the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) system. As a part of ADS system, the ADS message processing system based on PC computer was given more attention. Furthermore, the paper introduces the ADS trial status and points out that the ADS implementation will bring tremendous economical and social efficiency.
    • BANDWIDTH AND POWER EFFICIENCY TRADE-OFFS OF SOQPSK

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK), as proposed and analyzed by Terrance Hill, is a family of constant envelope waveforms that is non-proprietary and exhibits excellent spectral containment and detection efficiency. Results for two variants, defined as SOQPSK-A and -B, have previously been presented. However, it remains to be seen whether or not even more attractive choices exist. This paper explores the bandwidth and power efficiency trade-offs of the entire SOQPSK family using computer simulations and analytical performance bounds.
    • CAPS: AN EGLIN RANGE STANDARD FOR PC-BASED TELEMETRY DATA REDUCTION

      Thomas, Tim; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A need exists to provide a flexible data reduction tool that minimizes software development costs and reduces analysis time for telemetry data. The Common Airborne Processing System (CAPS), developed by the Freeman Computer Sciences Center at Eglin AFB, Florida, provides a generalpurpose data reduction capability for digitally recorded data on a PC. Data from virtually any kind of MIL-STD-1553 message or Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) frame can be extracted and converted to engineering units using a parameter dictionary that describes the data format. The extracted data can then be written to a file, ASCII or binary, with a great deal of flexibility in the output format. CAPS has become the standard for digitally recorded data reduction on a PC at Eglin. New features, such as composing derived parameters using mathematical expressions, are being added to CAPS to make it an even more productive data reduction tool. This paper provides a conceptual overview of the CAPS version 2.3 software.
    • CHAOTIC SPREAD-SPECTRUM SEQUENCE GENERATED BY MULTILEVEL QUANTIFYING AND THEIR PROPERTIES

      Chengquan, Au; Tingxian, Zhou; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      According to the advantages of chaotic analog sequences and chaotic binary sequences, this paper proposes a method generating chaotic binary spread-spectrum sequence by multilevel quantifying. This paper proved that even correlation and odd correlation between such sequences of length N are all Gaussian distributed with mean 0 and variance N, the even of mean-square cross-correlation is N, and the variance of mean-square cross-correlation is 2N. The method can increase the number of chaotic sequences, made the spread-spectrum system more secure. The theoretical analyses and the results of simulation show that the performance of such sequence general is as same as traditional spread-spectrum sequence, its number is very large, and can be used in CDMA in future.
    • CHOOSING NETWORK STANDARDS

      Jones, Sid; Naval Air Systems Team (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      There are many network standards in the commercial market today. The layered concept works so well, a developer can implement exactly the capability they desire through careful selection of standards and protocols. This brings up an interesting question of where we draw the line between standardizing on a single implementation and allowing the flexibility of all there is to offer? There are valid arguments for both sides. The telemetry community cannot afford to let this question fall through the cracks. We have the chance to identify what we need to do and how we should do it for both the specific application and the overall system.
    • A COMPARISON OF ADAPTIVELY EQUALIZED PCM/FM, SOQPSK, AND MULTI-H CPM IN A MULTIPATH CHANNEL

      Hill, Terrance; Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      It is widely recognized that telemetry channels, particularly airborne channels, are afflicted by multipath propagation effects. It has also been shown that adaptive equalization can be highly effective in mitigating these effects. However, numerous other factors influence the behavior of adaptive equalization, and the type of modulation employed is certainly one of these factors. This is particularly true on modulations which exhibit different operating bandwidths. In this paper, we will examine the effect multipath and adaptive equalization for three modulation techniques which are either already in use, or have been proposed, for airborne telemetry.
    • COMPARISON OF RECEIVERS FOR MULTI-H CPM

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A noncoherent receiver for the general case of M-ary partial response multi-h continuous phase modulation (CPM) is presented. The receiver operates on the principle of sequence estimation via the Viterbi Algorithm (VA). It offers a significant complexity reduction from the optimal coherent maximum likelihood sequence estimating (MLSE) receiver. The performance of the receiver is evaluated with computer simulations. It performs at a loss of 1–6 dB relative to the MLSE receiver for the CPM schemes considered in the simulations. The receiver shows promise in applications requiring reduced complexity and use of existing hardware.
    • A DECOUPLED APPROACH TO COMPENSATION FOR NONLINEARITY AND INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE

      Lyman, Raphael J.; Wang, Qingsong; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      To achieve good efficiency in a space-based radio transmitter, its final amplifier must be operated near the saturation point, in its nonlinear region. Because of strict band limitations, this nonlinear operation is combined with the problem of intersymbol interference. Normally, these problems are addressed using a combination of equalization and power back-off, resulting in reduced power efficiency. Many proposed receiver-based methods, such as Volterra equalization, attempt to compensate for the nonlinearity and ISI in a single block before the detector, allowing higher efficiency operation, but introducing a great deal of complexity. We propose a receiver-based method in which the two effects are dealt with in separate blocks, an equalizer and a linearizer, resulting in considerable simplification. We go further and place the detector before the linearizer, achieving improved performance by eliminating the errors introduced by the linearizer. Simulation results compare favorably with the performance of a linear AWGN channel.
    • DEFINING AN OPEN FLIGHT DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      As today’s flight test data acquisition systems grow more complex, there is an urgent need for open standards that allow Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment from different vendors to be used together. However, there is more to inter-operability than getting the wiring right – it flows through from requirements specification to the gathering of data. This paper discusses the characteristics of an open system at each interface between customer requirements and programming of the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU): • Industry standard specifications for data interchange with databases and software packages • Human readable file formats for Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) setup • Communications link from ground station equipment to DAU • Industry standard protocols for interconnection of DAUs • Intra-DAU backplane specification to allow custom acquisition functionality to be added Only by providing third-party entry points at all five layers can the goal of an open data acquisition system be achieved.
    • DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTONOMOUS SOCCER-PLAYING ROBOT

      Archibald, James K.; Beard, Randal W.; Olson, Steven A. R.; Dawson, Chad S.; Jacobson, Jared; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper describes the construction of an autonomous soccer playing robot as part of a senior design project at Brigham Young University. Each participating team designed and built a robot to compete in an annual tournament. To accomplish this, each team had access to images received from a camera placed above a soccer field. The creation of image processing and artificial intelligence software were required to allow the robot to perform against other robots in a one-on-one competition. Each participating team was given resources to accomplish this project. This paper contains a summary of the experiences gained by team members and also a description of the key components created for the robot named Prometheus to compete and win the annual tournament.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A BASELINE TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE CUBESAT PROGRAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

      Fink, U.; Schooley, L. C.; Hudor, A.; Eatchel, A. L.; Fevig, R.; Cooper, C.; Gruenenfelder, J.; Wallace, J.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      A telemetry system has been developed at the University of Arizona to serve as a baseline for future CubeSat designs. Two satellites are scheduled for launch in November of 2002. One features a beacon that operates autonomously of all but the power system and can independently deploy the antennas. The other will test the performance of new semiconductor devices in low earth orbit. Sensors will monitor voltages, currents (from which attitude and tumble rate can be derived), received signal strength and a distribution of temperatures. The CubeSat’s architecture, operating system, sensors, telemetry format and link budget are discussed.
    • DISTRIBUTED TERRESTRIAL RADIOLOCATION USING THE RLS ALGORITHM

      Brown, Andrew P.; Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      This paper presents the development of two distributed terrestrial radiolocation algorithms that use range estimates derived from DS-CDMA waveforms. The first algorithm, which is RLS-based, is derived as the solution of an approximate least-squares positioning problem. This algorithm has the advantage of reduced computational complexity, compared with the EKF-based algorithm that is presented. It is shown via simulations that both positioning algorithms perform well, with the performance of the EKF-based algorithm being superior.
    • Effective Ball Handling and Control in Robot Soccer

      Beard, Randal W.; Archibald, James K.; Johnson, Walter H.; Franklin, Rob; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      An autonomous soccer-playing robot was designed and constructed as part of the electrical engineering senior project at Brigham Young University. Unique physical features enable ball handling abilities. A front-side rotating drum retains the ball by applying backspin. A pneumatic kicker allows for fast accurate kicks. Robot movement control is performed by three different systems. The low-level velocity controller ensures output of desired forward and angular velocities. The position controller is used to match the robot's position with a desired position. Path generation directs the robot along a desired path at a specified velocity. The locations of the robots and ball on the soccer field is determined by the vision system. This document is a formal description of the unique designs and construction of the our team's robot.
    • EMBEDDED GIS IN INTELLIGENT NAVIGATION SYSTEM

      Xiaobo, Xie; Qishan, Zhang; Xingjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2002-10)
      Embedded GIS in Intelligent Navigation System is a special information system. This paper puts forward several basic principles and constraints during design for Embedded GIS at first, and then analyzes the feature of embedded platform and the function of Intelligent Navigation System, and presents a realization scheme of Embedded GIS.