• MODERNIZING THE REMOTE TRACKING STATION

      Blanchard, W. N. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Since the inception of the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) in the late 1950s, capabilities of the network’s Remote Tracking Stations (RTSs) were evolutionarily developed to meet satellite Tracking, Telemetry, and Commanding (TT&C) needs. The result, although fully satisfactory operationally, was an RTS network requiring manpowerintensive mission support. Additionally, reconfiguration of an RTS between satellite contacts consumed far more time than was operationally desirable as demands for RTS contact support continued to grow. To improve network responsiveness and cost effectiveness, the Air Force undertook, in the mid-1980s, a major “block upgrade” under the Automated Remote Tracking Station (ARTS) Program. This paper traces historical RTS capabilities, identifies emerging mid1980s RTS support requirements, and defines the operational and financial advantages accruing to the Air Force through ARTS implementation to meet those requirements. Possible future upgrades to further enhance AFSCN TT&C mission capability are also briefly discussed.
    • A NUMERICAL CONTROL AND INFORMATION GATHERING TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

      Liu, X.D. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper describes a numerical control and information gathering transmission system. The system is designed around an Intel MSC51 single chip microcomputer. The system has proven to be simple and dependable in a user environment. The system is described first, followed by descriptions of the hardware, the memory assignment, and the software strategy.
    • RAPID PROTOTYPING AS AN ACQUISITION STRATEGY OF THE AIR FORCE SATELLITE CONTROL NETWORK

      Whipple, L.K.; Hoida, T.J.; USAF Space Systems Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) processes on the order of a thousand separate requirements each year to enhance Network capability to meet the support needs of various satellites. Many of these individual requirements are translated into modifications or additions to the network assets. Rapid Prototyping has been utilized successfully for complex and urgent developments to meet many of these requirements. Rapid Prototyping has also been used for requirements definition and for defining man/machine interfaces. Through Rapid Prototyping, the AFSCN has successfully developed applications using new technology and has improved the process of defining requirements for operational satellite support systems. Rapid prototyping is proving to be an effective alternative to the traditional system acquisition process
    • EXPERT ANALYSIS OF TELEMETRY DATA

      Delatizky, Jonathan; Morrill, Jeff; Lynch, Thomas J., III; Haberl, Karl; Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      We describe FAES, a knowledge-based system for postprocess interpretion of telemetry data obtained from in-water tests of the Torpedo MK48 ADCAP and recorded on tape in a telemetry format. The system is designed to automate a diagnostic application in fleet operations. A generic software solution provides the infrastructure for customization through application-specific knowledge representation. Pattern recognition provides a feature-extraction layer between the raw data and an expert system, and gives domain experts a natural and comfortable representation. Use of features abstracted from the raw data greatly reduces the complexity of encoding the rules that describe the behavior of the system under investigation. This allows the experts – not the system programmers – to control the resulting software. The approach has led to development of a system which accurately determines the cause of shutdown in torpedo tests and which will be extended to the full range of diagnostics now done manually. A slightly modified system is being used to support torpedo proofing by automating comparisons of recorded data with the weapon specification and alerting engineers to violations.
    • EVOLUTION OF THE DOD GLOBAL SPACE TEST CAPABILITY

      Grogan, James L., III; Fricks, Robert E. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper is an overview of progress toward a more formalized military space test range capability. It reviews the motivation for a space test function, relates history which has led to the contemporary space test operation, scopes existing space test pursuits and projects a direction for future activity. Its intent is to baseline the status of the current space test program and to present one vision for its future evolution.
    • USING DATAFLOW ARCHITECTURE TO SOLVE THE TRANSPORT LAG PROBLEM WHEN INTERFACING WITH AN ENGINEERING MODEL FLIGHT COMPUTER IN A TELEMETRY SIMULATION

      White, Joey; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      One of the most challenging technical problems in the development of a spacecraft telemetry simulation is the interface with a flight computer running real-world flight software. The ability of the simulation to satisfy flight software requests for telemetry data, and to load, mode, and control the flight software along with the simulation, can be constrained or degraded using conventional interface solutions. Telemetry dataflow architecture systems can be utilized to solve the interface problems with less constraints. This is an especially attractive solution in a telemetry simulation where the telemetry system can also be used to format and serialize spacecraft telemetry, and receive and preprocess commands. This paper discusses the concepts developed for such a system for a training simulation of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle for NASA at Johnson Space Center.
    • THE EVOLUTION OF AFSCN TELEMETRY SIMULATION SYSTEMS

      Dessling, R.W.; Lockheed Technical Operations Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force satellite control capability was started in the late 1950s to support command and control of orbiting spacecraft. A need to train and certify ground support personnel as well as to validate equipment configurations soon became evident. Ground personnel would have to know how to generate satellite contact plans, establish connectivity between the satellite and telemetry display terminals, analyze satellite telemetry data, and transmit commands to execute the contact plans. They would have to learn specific ground systems capabilities, satellite design information, and approved command and control procedures. This presentation will review the evolution of telemetry simulation systems as they apply to systems test, personnel training and evaluation. Included will be a discussion of the ground and satellite systems, and how system upgrades and changing operations concepts have fostered the development of telemetry simulators. In describing the next generation of AFSCN simulation systems, this paper will highlight the important part they play in validating system configuration and in personnel training.
    • A GUI BASED SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC CONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING MODEL SOFTWARE FOR COMMAND RESPONSE AND TELEMETRY GENERATION

      Parlanti, Joe; Pinkerton, Ronnie; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      There exists today, numerous off-the-shelf hardware solutions for the generation of simulated telemetry data streams. The ability to rapidly develop engineering models to drive the data contents of the telemetry is restricted by the lack of contemporary CASE tools. This paper presents an object-oriented Graphical User Interface (GUI) approach to generation of mathematical models in order to reduce the time required for model generation to a fraction of today’s development time, eliminate the need to write substantial amounts of software, and allow reuse of model objects in a manner consistent with the GUI cut, paste, and copy metaphors.
    • A GENERIC OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN FOR A RADIO FREQUENCY SIMULATION IN A SPACE TELEMETRY AND COMMAND ENVIRONMENT

      Policella, Joseph; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      In a generic telemetry simulation the overall fidelity of the simulation is largely based on the simulated vehicle’s On-Board-Systems (OBS) engineering models that drive the generation of the telemetry. Also, the actual transfer of data between the simulated vehicle and control center depends on the ability of the Radio Frequency (RF) OBS to acquire and process the RF links thus resulting in a Acquisition of Signal or Loss of Signal (AOS/LOS) determination. The simulated RF links are a function of the communications OBS models, and the communications environment models. The communications OBS models are responsible for propagating the RF signal. Since the RF link analysis is highly integrated into the characteristics of the communications equipment and environment models, RF link software needs to be constantly redeveloped as communications equipment models change, fidelity is added, or multiple links are created. However, by using a generic objectoriented design, RF link software can process any number of differing links based on the RF characteristics of the propagated wave. As a result, the communications equipment model software can be changed to reflect possible design changes without having to rewrite the RF link software thus allowing reuse of existing code.
    • HIGH “G” MICROWAVE TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      KE ZHI, DANG; Xi’an Institute of Electromechanical Information Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The high “G” microwave telemetry system is a microwavemetre wave compatible telemetry system and a telemetry system of time division-frequency division hybrid. The so-called “hybrid” means by adding a microwave programcontrolled receiving antenna and a microwave frequency converter to the front-end of metre wave telemetry system, the microwave telemetry system shall be made up, by removing the additional front-end microwave head and connecting to metre wave receiving antenna instead, the metre wave telemetry system shall be made up. The so-called high “G” means that the microwave projectile-borne equipment can stand the high acceleration shock overloading and the high-speed rotation of the gunshot. This system is compact in structure, flexible in forming ground equipment and unique in high-strength design for projectile-borne equipment, the system meets the requirements of small-size, all-purpose and economization for range telemetry, therefore it is the necessary equipment for the range.
    • Subcarrier Placement in a PCM-FM-FM/FM Modulation Scheme

      Moser, Juliette Lyn; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      In a PCM-FM-FM/FM modulation scheme, one pulse code modulated (PCM) signal is added to a series of FM subcarrier modulated signals, and the sum is modulated on one FM carrier frequency. After the signal is carrier demodulated at the receiver and the signals modulating the subcarriers are individually filtered and demodulated, the information carried by the subcarrier frequencies may be distorted or lost due to interference power of the PCM signal that is passed by the subcarrier signals’ bandpass filters. The effect of the interference power may be reduced when the subcarrier frequencies are chosen to coincide with the zero crossing frequencies of the PCM signal. It will be shown that this choice results in a lower interference power than when the subcarrier frequencies come between the zero crossings. The PCM signal used in this study is of polar nonreturn to zero format.
    • PCM BIT SYNCHRONIZATION TO AN Eb/No THRESHOLD OF -20 dB

      Schroeder, Gene F. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper presents an overview of a digital PCM adaptive bit synchronizer capable of bit synchronization down to an Eb/No of -20 dB where Eb/No is the energy contrast ratio. The topics addressed include: 1. Functional block diagrams. 2. Loop bandwidth as a function of synchronization threshold. 3. Accuracy, resolution and stability requirements of the Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) and Loop Filter (LF). 4. Performance data. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the major components of a unit capable of performing this task based on an actual development program.
    • GULF RANGE DRONE CONTROL UPGRADE SYSTEM MOBILE CONTROL SYSTEM

      Wagner, Steven M.; Goodson, John H.; General Electric Government Services, Inc.; Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Gulf Range Drone Control Upgrade System (GRDCUS) Mobile Control System (GMCS) is an integral part of the test ranges located on the Gulf of Mexico. This paper begins with a brief overview of the current Gulf Range systems. These systems consist of five major components: ground stations, ground computer systems, data link/transponders, consoles, and software. The GMCS van contains many of these components to provide a stand-alone range capability for remote operations. This paper describes the development and assembly of the GMCS van and focuses on the on-board computer systems, consoles, and data link technology. An overall system engineering approach was used during GMCS development and is highlighted through the use of rapid prototyping. This methodology and the lessons learned are presented in the paper. Suggestions for future applications are considered.
    • DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A MODERN TELEMETRY PROCESSING AND DISPLAY SYSTEM

      KNIGHT, PAUL D.; Pacific Missile Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Designing and fielding a telemetry processing and display system in today’s environment of rapidly changing requirements is an imposing task. This paper delineates some design considerations that will allow a system designer to adapt or modify a system as required in order to stay abreast of constantly changing telemetry requirements. A description of how these design considerations were used in implementing the Telemetry Processing System at the Pacific Missile Test Center is then presented.
    • MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DIGITAL CONTROLLER FOR THE ADVANCED TELEMETRY TRACKING SYSTEM

      ROSALES, MARCELO V.; WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NM (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      This paper discusses the design and implementation of a microcomputer system that functions as the central processing unit for performing servo system control, tracking mode determination, operator interface, switching, and logic operations. The computer hardware consists of VMEbus compatible boards that include a Motorola 32-bit MC68020 microprocessor-based CPU board, and a variety of interface boards. The computer is connected to the Radio Frequency system, Antenna Control Unit, azimuth and elevation servo systems, and other systems of the Advanced Transportable Telemetry Acquisition System (TTAS-A) through extensive serial, analog, and digital input/output interfacing. The software platform consists of a commercially-acquired real-time multi-tasking operating system, and in-house developed device drivers and tracking system software. The operating system kernel is written in assembly language, while the application software is written using the C programming language. To enhance the operation of the TTAS-A, software was also developed to provide color graphics, CRT menus, printer listings, interactive real-time hardware/software diagnostics, and a GPIB (IEEE-488 bus) interface for Automated Testing System support.
    • MULTI-STREAM DATA-DRIVEN TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Can, Ouyan; Chang-jie, Shi; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry; Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Multi-Stream Data-Driven Telemetry System (MSDDTS) is a new generation system in China developed by Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (BRIT) for high bit rate, multi-stream data acquisition, processing and display. Features of the MSDDTS include: .Up to 4 data streams; .Data driven architecture; .Multi-processor for parallel processing; .Modular, Configurable, expandable and programmable; .Stand-along capability; .And, external control by host computer. This paper addresses three very important aspects of the MSDDTS. First, the system architecture is discussed. Second, three basic models of the system configuration are described. The third shows the future development of the system.
    • A TELEMETRY AND SPACE COMMUNICATION NETWORK SIMULATION FOR TRAINING

      White, Joey; Policella, Joseph; CAE-Link Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      Telemetry and data communications network simulation training devices are used to train mission controllers and spacecraft flight crews to manage the space network’s resources for consistent and reliable data flow between a user’s spacecraft and control center. A Space Communication Network simulation for communication controller training contains models for; network configuration, resource scheduling, simulation of tracking data blocks, data quality monitoring (DQM), responses and interaction, malfunctions, and a communication environment to control the flow of data. The goal of the simulation is to train in the management of the Space Communication Network utilizing real-world formats and real-world protocols thus enabling the simulator to appear to the trainees as the real-world network.
    • AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION and RELAY SYSTEM

      Netzer, Allan (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), 6545th Test Group, is the Air Force center of expertise for Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) test and evaluation (T&E). To facilitate this mission, the 6545th Test Group developed three NC-130 Surrogate Carrier Launch Platform (SCLP) aircraft for UAV test support. The SCLP aircraft support various test functions including avionics testing, captive-carriage, and launch of UAVs and missiles. The system can support concept validation and early Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E) without requiring the operational launch platform, freeing these critical assets from test support. The SCLP aircraft use a palletized “roll-on/roll-off” approach to increase test support flexibility and decrease test costs. Capabilities include airborne command and control, flight termination, telemetry tracking, recording, relay of in-flight test vehicle data, and engineering test stations for airborne data analysis and test control. The SCLP can captive-carry, launch, and operate a test article out of line of sight of range ground stations. SCLP can display engineering data and relay the data to a Mission Control Center (MCC). Additionally, the SCLP permits autonomous operation on undeveloped airspace or supplements capabilities at existing facilities. Early SCLP configurations were used during concept validation of the air-launched Tacit Rainbow missile, while later variations supported several efforts, including classified programs. This paper describes the telemetry-tracking and relay capabilities of the SCLP using the Airborne Data Acquisition and Relay System (ADARS) station. The ADARS uses a combination of tracking and omni-directional antennas to acquire, track, record, and retransmit telemetry data. The combination of two directional tracking antennas and diversity combining of the received signals enables the system to reliably acquire test vehicle data at relatively low signal levels or with high fade rates. The system proved very versatile and was modified to support various special project requirements. The system is currently configured to receive and retransmit telemetry data up to a rate of 1.92 Megabits per second (Mbps).
    • THE ROLE OF THE PC IN GROUND TELEMETRY DATA ANALYSIS

      Burkhart, Fred; Chang, Chia-Mu; Loral Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The growth of personal computer use was explosive in the last decade. In the telemetry industry, however, the adaptation and utilization of a PC-based telemetry instrument for high-speed data processing and display did not come about until the Intel 80386™ or equivalent processors were widely used in the late 1980s. At this time, the power of these processors finally began to meet the requirement to display, store, and play back the high-speed data (such as 10 Mbps with an embedded asynchronous data stream) that is typical in telemetry applications. Many users are still hesitant to use PCS for their telemetry applications because of the real-time limitations of these instruments. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of PC-based test equipment, the performance these instruments, and the future of PC-based telemetry instrumentation. This paper will also focus on Loral Instrumentation’s d*STAR as an example of a PC-based telemetry system.
    • GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) FOR THE ARMY’S AIR DEFENSE OPERATIONAL TESTING

      Parra, Mario Z.; McIntyre, Robert G. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1991-11)
      The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering recognized the potential advantages of a GPS-based range tracking system. As a result, the Range Applications Joint Program Office (RAJPO) was established. (1)The RAJPO was formed to develop a family of NAVSTAR GPS range equipment for the tri-service national test range community. The Air Defense Artillery Test Directorate (ADATD) has supported the RAJPO in the potential use of GPS-derived time, space, and position information (TSPI) in operational testing environments.