ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The International Telemetering Conference/USA (ITC/USA) is dedicated to the promotion and stimulation of technical growth in telemetering and its allied arts and sciences. It is the premier annual forum and technical exhibition providing telemetry specific short courses, technical papers from professionals and students, and exhibits of the industry’s leading companies. ITC/USA is sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering (IFT), a non-profit corporation dedicated to serving the technical and professional interests of the telemetering community.

This collection contains the proceedings of the sixteenth International Telemetering Conference, October 14-16, 1980. The conference, sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering, was held at the Bahia Hotel in San Diego, California.

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Recent Submissions

  • Laser Communications Space Experiment

    Linford, R. M. F.; Speno, F. G.; McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    A laser communications (Lasercom) payload is to be flown on board the Air Force P80-1 (Teal Ruby) spacecraft. An experiment is to be conducted between laser transmitters at White Sands, NM and the spaceborne receiver to demonstrate the feasibility of Lasercom uplinks. An optical telemetry downlink is also included, and an experiment option will provide for an aircraft-to-space experiment. Details of the experiment and the flight hardware will be described.
  • Laser Communications Acquisition & Tracking Flight Tests

    Abernathy, J. L.; Clark, E. S., III; Dreiseward, D. W.; Maynard, J. A.; McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    A 1 Gbps laser communications system has been installed in a C-135 aircraft, and acquisition and tracking tests have been successfully completed with a ground station at the White Sands Missile Range. A description of the test site, the installation of the equipment in the aircraft, and the ground test equipment will be discussed. The laser communications system acquisition and tracking will be explained, and system test data presented.
  • The Future of MOS Memories in Telecommunications

    Price, Betty; Motorola, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
  • Terrain Reflection Effects on Data Reception from Airborne Vehicles

    Chandler, Charles W.; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Propagation phenomena, particularly the interference between the direct and terrain reflected waves, strongly affect the path loss between the transmitting and receiving antennas. A method of analysis and computer-drawn patterns are presented to show the multi-lobed character and deep nulls, in range-altitude coverage, that result. Type of terrain, polarization, and antenna pattern effects are shown. Application of the results to system design is discussed.
  • Telemetry System Based on Walsh Functions

    Chishan, Chang; Zhongkan, Liu; Beijing Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    In this paper a telemetry system based on Walsh functions is described. After a brief introduction of Walsh functions a sequency division multiplex system is introduced. Synchronization problem is discussed in some detail. Finally, experimental results are given to justify the design consideration.
  • Selection of Optimum Antennas for Tracking Telemetry Instrumented Airborne Vehicles

    Sullivan, Arthur; Electro Magnetic Processes, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    A simplified method of developing the link budget to determine the required antenna gain is presented. A heuristic analysis is presented to determine whether a low cost fixed antenna can be used or if a tracking system is required. If a tracking system is required, an analysis is presented to determine whether a single axis tracking system will suffice or a two axis tracking system is required. The pros and cons of single channel monopulse versus conical scan are also presented. Additionally, tracking system acquisition aid techniques are discussed.
  • Remote Monitoring and Communication of Telemetry Data

    Murphy, Carl G.; Johnson, E. W.; Science Application, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    The Brine Measuring System-Environmental Monitoring and Data Acquisition System (BRIMS-EMDAS) being used at the Bryan Mound, Texas, National Strategic Oil Reservoir will be used as an example to demonstrate the system features of a remote monitoring and data communications system. A buoy-mounted telemetry system is used to measure ocean temperature, conductivity and flow required for monitoring salinity levels near pumped brine outputs. The monitoring and communication system described in this presentation provides computer-to-computer communication via network as well as remote user display of data inventory, configuration and engineering unit data. The system stresses ease in configuration and inventory control. Configuration make, change and list functions and inventory list, archive and delete functions are provided.
  • A Self-Synchronizing Pseudo-Random Bit Error Detector

    Lerma, Jesse; Odetics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    A synchronous pseudo-random bit error detection strategy, incorporating a novel sync acquistion feature, is shown to detect both data and time base errors and to recover sync following such time base errors with no apparent delay, subject to certain error rate constraints. The discussion applies generally to any 2^N-1 pseudo-random sequence. An appendix expands on the linear sequential properties of pseudo-random sequences germain to the implementation of the detection strategy discussed.
  • Lock Detector Algorithms for Synchronization

    Holmes, Jack K.; Holmes Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Lock detector lock algorithms for both pseudonoise spread spectrum systems and carrier loops are discussed. Specifically, a theory based on discrete time Markov processes employing a generalization of some results of Kemeny and Snell(1) are derived and yield both the mean and the variance of the time it takes to have a false dismissal and a false alarm. Some examples of typical algorithms are given.
  • Coherent Detection of Frequency-Hopped QPSK and QASK Systems with Tone and Noise Jamming

    Simon, M. K.; Polydoros, A.; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Axiomatix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Perfectly coherent demodulation provides a lower bound on the bit error probability (BEP) of any spread spectrum system. Here the performance of coherent QPSK and QASK systems combined with frequency hopping (FH) or frequency-hopping direct-sequence (FH/PN) spread spectrum techniques in the presence of a multitone or noise jammer is shown. The worst-case jammer and worst-case performance are determined as functions of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-jammer power ratio (SJR). Asymptotic results for high SNR show a linear dependence between the jammers' optimal power allocation and the system performance.
  • Open-Loop Nanosecond-Synchronization for Wideband Satellite Communications

    Holmes, W. Morris, Jr.; TRW DSSG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Successful satellite communication systems, providing service to thousands of users, must feature very inexpensive earth terminals. As many functions as possible must be transferred to the satellite, or a central control station, to reduce terminal complexity and cost. When satellite processors are used to demodulate, route, and error-correction decode and encode the communication channel data synchronization requirements can strongly affect system costs. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is an efficient technique for efficiently distributing satellite services among many system users. Traditional TDMA synchronization techniques feature independent synchronization of each system communication data burst. This is expensive in terms of hardware complexity and system overhead efficiency. Demodulators and data bit-synchronizers must be designed to acquire during short burst preamble times, and unique-word-defectors must be provided to identify the burst time-division-multiplex reference. Burst preambles consume a significant portion of the available communication time, or force long frame periods with expensive buffers, as the number of independent communication channels becomes large. This paper discusses a synchronization technique for use with an onboard processing satellite communication system. The satellite oscillator is used as the system time reference, and as the frequency source for all downlink carriers and data clocks. Downlink timing is established at each system earth terminal by a combination of carrier and dataclock tracking, and a downlink timing epoch signal consisting of one bit per TDMA data burst. Uplink timing is established by an open-loop range prediction process, utilizing precision ephemerides calculated and distributed by the central control station. Overall timing accuracy of the uplink signal at the satellite receiver of ±7 nanoseconds allows unambiguous identification of each data bit position in a 128 Mbps TDMA burst. This is accomplished with simple, inexpensive terminal hardware using available crystal oscillators for time/frequency references and digital synthesis techniques that may be implemented in digital LSI chips. This paper presents terminal hardware block diagrams, satellite block diagrams, and central control station algorithms for the required timing synchronization functions. Error budgets for the identified error sources are also presented.
  • Device Independent Software and Hardware

    Kasser, Joseph; Thorne, Richard; Communications Satellite Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    The INTELSAT V Communications System Monitoring (CSM) network consists of 11 worldwide installations and a centralized data processing/display facility. Each installation is slightly different from the others due to the local station equipment. The CSM installation consists of a number of control and monitoring equipment interfaced to a HP-1000 minicomputer via the IEEE-488 Bus. This paper describes the modular approach taken in the design of nine pieces of control and monitoring equipment that allowed 27 different units, including differences due to sites and antennas, to be designed within a period of three months. The paper discusses the communications protocols and the device independent software used, to speed the development and debug time.
  • High Performance Raster Scan Displays

    Fowler, Jon F.; Ramtek Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    A brief discussion of contemporary raster scan display system architecture followed by a detailed description of the Ramtek 9400, an ultra-high-performance raster scan display generator. While the 9400 is well suited for image processing applications, this article focuses most of its attention on the graphic features of the system. Those readers who are searching for a pure image processing solution are encouraged to read further. This article is intended for those seeking a pure graphic or combined graphic and imaging solution such as the projection of a map onto a satellite image, etc.
  • Simplicity in Command and Control Systems: A Human Factors Consideration

    Chafin, Roy L.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Simplicity in the Man Computer Interface (MCI) is a desirable feature. Hopefully, it makes the system containing the MCI "easier to use". This paper uses results from a MCI study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to identify an area where the system MCIs can be simplified. It identifies the circumstances where these simplifications are appropriate. The concepts of Cognitive simplicity and Process simplicity are presented as MCI design alternatives. The concepts of Understandability, Operation, Learnability, Level of learning, and Useability are presented as tools for the system designer. The use of these concepts to provide a systematic MCI design is discussed.
  • Strategic Laser Communications

    Hanson, Donald W.; Griffiss Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    The possibility of using visible laser beams to communicate with strategic forces has recently been proposed. Two approaches to implementing such a communication system have been discussed. One approach uses a spaceborne laser with a radio frequency uplink. The other approach uses a ground-based laser with one or more space-based relay mirrors. The downlink problems for both approaches are nearly identical. The space-based laser approach must overcome problems associated with space qualifying a large laser, while the ground-based laser approach must overcome the problem of transmitting the uplink optical beam through the turbulent atmosphere. Adaptive optics are used to solve this problem by compensating for the degrading effects imposed on the uplink laser beam as it propagates through the atmosphere.
  • System Testing of Communications and Tracking Links for First Orbital Flight of the Space Transportation System (STS)

    Russell, William F.; Rockwell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    Verification testing of the communications and tracking (C&T) links prior to the first STS flight has been a prime concern. The C&T system for the Space Shuttle orbiter (SSO) provides for the transmission and reception of voice, command data, tracking data, telemetry, television, main engine data, external tank (ET) data, and payload data between the flight vehicle and the ground (communication between detached payloads and ground is achieved via the SSO as bent-pipe data or as part of the standard pulse code modulation telemetry data), and for the transmission and reception of voice and/or data between the flight vehicle and extravehicular activity (EVA). The C&T links will be operated during preflight, in-flight, and postflight phases of the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The verification testing program for C&T links makes use of the results obtained from element-level component and subsystem tests and analyses, and adds this information to the data from a series of combined-element analyses and system-level tests to ensure that performance requirements are met. A verification network outlines major paths leading toward integrated verification of the C&T links for OFT. A matrix illustrates the STS C&T system verification requirements versus the testing facilities and identifies STS RF links test at various facilities. Another matrix shows the verification requirements, methods and criteria, and hardware and software requirements of all facilities for each RF link. The role of each facility in the verification process is described. Special tests that have supported overall readiness are listed.
  • A PCM-PPK Telemetry System

    You-ping, Li; Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    PCM-PPK telemetry system is one of digitized PPM systems. The PCM-PPK Coverter, synchronous timing circuit and detection device are described. Besides, communication efficiency from viewpoint of information theory is calculated. We come to conclusion, minimum received energy required per bit of PPK system are lower than the PSK and FSK systems.
  • Spectrum of the Product Signal of a PN Code and Its Time-Shared Early and Late Dithering Replica

    Woo, K. T.; TRW Defense and Space Systems Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    The spectrum of the product signal of a PN code and its replica offset in time has been analyzed by Gill in [1]. In this paper a more generalized result is obtained. In particular, the spectrum of the product signal of a PN code and its time-shared early and late replica is given as a function of the dithering rate, the magnitude of the dithers (i.e., tau), the code sync error, and the gating function which controls the manner in which time sharing of early and late dithering is accomplished. From this evaluation the effect of PN self-noise on the performance of a direct sequence spread spectrum communication system with taudither code tracking can be quantified.
  • Man/Machine Interface Definition

    Sheets, K. Y.; Taverney, Thomas; INFOTEC Development, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    As an integral part of developing operational concepts for large scale command and control centers it is necessary to make assessments of the control and display requirements and the personnel subsystem. A methodology for detailing the man/machine requirements has been developed which can assist in the design of these control centers. The proposed methodology is extremely flexible and has been used for several different types of problems. The analysis begins with the functional activities to be performed and carries them through to the specification of the display requirements for each operator position and the manpower necessary to support the operation of the control center. An important aspect of the methodology is that it allows traceability of the original requirements throughout the process.
  • Empirical Study on the Variability of Monte Carlo Simulation

    Moore, John H.; Jeruchim, Michel C.; General Electric Company, Space Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1980-10)
    In a Monte Carlo simulation there are variations in the results as a function of the priming numbers, or seeds, of the random number generators. Some of this variation can be interpreted as arising from finite-time observation, but some of it may be due to inherent non-ideal properties of the number generators themselves. These properties cannot generally be deduced from standard statistical tests. Hence the result of the experiment itself must serve as the final measure of variability. An extensive empirical study was conducted in which two nonlinear satellite links using MSK modulation were simulated. The results should provide guidance as to the variability that can result, and the causes thereof, in Monte Carlo simulation of communication systems.

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