ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The International Telemetering Conference/USA (ITC/USA) is dedicated to the promotion and stimulation of technical growth in telemetering and its allied arts and sciences. It is the premier annual forum and technical exhibition providing telemetry specific short courses, technical papers from professionals and students, and exhibits of the industry’s leading companies. ITC/USA is sponsored by the International Foundation for Telemetering (IFT), a non-profit corporation dedicated to serving the technical and professional interests of the telemetering community.

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  • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 53 (2017)

    Unknown author (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
  • SPECTRUM RELOCATION FUND TRANSITION AGILITY CHALLENGE

    von Niederhausern, Josef; Wade, Terry; Hagg, Michael; Morgan, Matthew; Uhland, Greg; Berard, Alfredo; Klein, Lorin; Eglin AFB, 96th Test Wing (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Due to Auction 97 frequency sell off and anticipated higher usage of C-Band, space time code (STC) and low-density parity-check (LDPC) code were evaluated for latency, characterization, and performance during flight. The benefit of an STC path can be observed by measuring the channel power of a dual antenna and comparing it to the contributions from each antenna independently. The STC provides a benefit only when both antennas are visible to a receiver and when the combined result of a dual antenna system would destructively add. The Eglin Spectrum Reallocation Fund (SRF) Project transitions the United States Air Force (USAF) aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) from operations in frequencies auctioned by the Department of Commerce (DOC) as part of Auction 97. This paper describes the AMT test methods used and upgrades accomplished by the 96th Test Wing in order to meet requirements of Auction 97.
  • Telemetry Range Support Aircraft (TRSA) Program Providing the Navy with Next Generation TM and Range Support

    Roudebush, J. Kyle; Hernandez, Jose; Kujiraoka, Scott; Sanchez, Kenneth; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    The aircraft currently being used to support the Navy’s mission of Telemetry Reception, Range Safety as well as Range Surveillance/Clearance are reaching the end of their useful life. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to procure a new aircraft and integrate these mission systems in order to continue the support of critical Naval Test Range operations. This paper will detail the current efforts being undertaken to upgrade a Gulfstream 550 to perform Range Support missions for the Multi-service Government Test Ranges.
  • ENERGY EFFICIENT CELLULAR NETWORK USING ADAPTIVE USER CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR SPARSELY POPULATED AREA

    Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Kassa, Hailu B.; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    In this paper, an algorithm for distance aware energy efficient Base Stations (BSs) is proposed, which exploits the knowledge of the distance between the Mobile User (MUs) and the BS. The proposed algorithm changes the cell radius depending on user distribution in the cell. In this case adaptive (dynamically changing) concentric circles are virtually drawn so that the UEs in the same concentric circle can get constant power from the BS. It means that the mobile users(MUs) are clustered based on the distance from the BS. The energy consumption has been evaluated without sacrificing significant offered Quality of Service (QoS) on the cellular networks. The proposed scheme aids to achieve energy saving as a result of reduced transmit power based on reducing the radius of the concentric. As the radius reduces the transmit power is also reduced logarithmically. The system uses Omni directional antenna which covers all 360 degree of the cell at once. The simulation result shows that as the distance from the BS decreases, the transmission power decreases and the energy also decreases. The distance or the radius variation dynamically is based on the number of users in that track comparing to the minimum required number of threshold users. The result shows that an average of 0.1762 dB or 1.04 Watt which is 9.45% of the maximum transmit power can be saved by dynamically varying the base station the radius at the area of low traffic load for a single scan.
  • PERFORMANCE OF THE EXTENDED TIME DIVERSITY TECHNIQUE IN REAL FLIGHT TEST CONDITIONS

    Blanc, Grégory; Skrzypczak, Alexandre; Pierozak, Jean-Guy; ZODIAC AEROSPACE - ZODIAC DATA SYSTEMS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    The emission of the telemetry signal is required over minimum two different antennas to keep the telemetry link available during a maneuver of a flying object. If nothing is made at the transmitter side, the telemetry link can be fully lost as both signals may have an opposite phase. This is the well-known “2-antennas problem”, also known as the “porcupine effect”. In 2016, Zodiac Data Systems (ZDS) presented a pragmatic and cost effective concept named eXtended Time Diversity (XTD) which is dedicated to combat the porcupine effect. The efficiency of this concept was demonstrated through lab tests, as well as its robustness in presence of multipath. The goal of this paper is to present the performance of the Extended Time Diversity in real conditions, after a series of flight tests.
  • SEAMLESS HANDOVER AT HIGH SPEEDS FOR CELLULAR RANGE TELEMETRY

    Hedge, Vinayak; Nokia Networks (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Cellular based Range Telemetry provides a lot of benefits over legacy Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry, such as: • Higher capacity, allowing multiple test articles (i.e. telemetry radio links) which have active telemetry data measurements exchanged in near real time. • Bi-directional radio links, that can allow new signaling with the avionics equipment on the test articles. • Higher performance provided by spectrally efficient OFDMA waveform used in LTE and the dynamic link adaptation that is built into the LTE waveform. With the CRTM cellular approach, the overall range coverage area is broken into multiple coverage areas, each served by a single cell. To maintain seamless service throughout the test flight, CRTM must support seamless mobility as the aircraft moves between the coverage areas of these cells. This is achieved using the connected mode handover procedures supported by LTE technology. Traditional LTE networks rely on signal strength measurements made by the User Equipment (UE) to make handover decisions. The measurement system and handover procedures have been designed to support mobility at speeds under 500 km/hr. To support mobility at higher speeds, the following need to be taken into account: - LTE User Equipment (UE) RF Signal Measurements: Accuracy of measurements depends on UE’s capability to measure the signal strength of a neighbor cell while synchronized to its serving cell. The higher Doppler shifts expected in an AMT environment due to the higher test article speeds and the higher frequency of operation along with the difference in Doppler shifts between the serving cell and neighbor cells complicates cell measurements. - Handover Processing Time: The serving eNodeB needs to process the measurements from the UE and initiate handover in a timely manner. Delays in handover processing can result in radio link failures. The higher speeds of test articles in the AMT environment reduces the time available to the eNodeB for handover processing. This paper explains the handover procedure in 4G LTE, with the focus on: Measurement reports that support handover decisions Decisions impacting data service delays during handover impacts to the handover processing when the UE (i.e. test article in CRTM) is moving at very high speed.
  • USE OF LTE FOR CELLULAR RANGE TELEMETRY (CRTM): A SIMULATION STUDY

    Krishnamoorthy, Arvind; Nokia Networks (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    The 3GPP LTE standard was primarily designed for terrestrial cellular usage. The potential use of LTE for cellular range telemetry produces some unique technical challenges for LTE technology. In this paper we examine these challenges in detail, and through the use of system level simulations identify the sensitivity of the performance of LTE-based cellular range telemetry system performance to key factors such as the ground station antenna pattern and orientation, the propagation model assumed, the number of transmit and receive antenna at the ground station, altitude of the airborne test article, etc.
  • ASSPA. ASSISTANT FOR FLIGHT TEST EXECUTION

    Rubio, Pedro; Lopez, Rodrigo; Airbus D&S (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    The objective of this paper is to describe the tools that have been developed to ease the Flight Test Engineers (FTE) the execution of Flight Test and ensure the highest quality of the final product. This first product is mainly devoted to Production Flight Test (PATM), where the profile and the tests to be performed are almost the same for all flights. As during the PATM there are many checks to do and many data to gather, the idea was to execute in an automatic way as many test points as could be possible. To cope with this requirement we have to develop an Automatic Flight Phase Detection in order to start some applications in the FTE Computer without any human intervention. So, we need a smart assistant to predict the following test points that will be executed. In addition of the previous point, it was also needed to send the results of the data gathering and calculation to a “Digital Flight Test Card” to avoid the use of paper. With both aids, Automatic Flight Phase Detection and Digital Flight Test Card, the efficiency of the execution of tests has been highly improved.
  • INVESTIGATING UNKNOWN IRIG CHAPTER 4, CLASS I OR II FORMATS

    Rettig, Wayne; Lumistar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    This describes one approach to investigating an unknown IRIG 106, Chapter, 4 Class I or Class II Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) format. The assumption is that you are supplied with decrypted data and clock signals for the unknown PCM stream. This technique is optimized for 16, 12, or 8-bit Word Minor Frames. Standard IRIG 106, Appendix C, Table C-1, Frame Synchronization (Frame Sync) values of 32, 24, 16-bit patterns are simpler to investigate. Other IRIG Frame Sync patterns can also be investigated, but are not dealt with in this document. This document will utilize a sample 24-bit Frame Sync pattern, because it will produce Endian issues in the recorded data.
  • NEAR-FIELD HOMING AND GUIDANCE PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

    Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Rhajagopal, Abhejit; UCSB, Dept Electrical & Comp. Eng. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Advances in planning and controls algorithms for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs) have led to a substantial increase in a wide variety of applications. An important task for UAVs is au-tomated high-precision homing-and-docking. This requires the UAV to autonomously estimate its relative bearing to the home docking station and plan its optimal approach accordingly. This paper presents the design of homing and navigation system for UAVs that can operate in near-field scenarios. The system incorporates a dual-transmitter/receiver design and through a modified angle of arrival and motion estimation routine, the UAV can determine its relative bearing to the homing station while simultaneously planning the optimal approach. The approach planning algorithm will be described, along with theoretical analysis and simulated results documenting its performance in comparison to other techniques.
  • EFFICIENT DATA STORAGE, SAMPLING, AND RETRIEVAL BY LEVERAGING OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Ferrill, Micha; Avionics Test & Analysis Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    This paper demonstrates the use of open-source software tools to manage large data sets. Advances in technology have greatly reduced the cost of data storage and processing systems. The ability to handle large amounts of data efficiently while retaining fine-grain control of the data retrieval process becomes a challenge. In particular, traditional data processing applications are inadequate to handle the large data sets typically encountered in IRIG-106 Chapter 10[1] data files. We answer this challenge by using readily available, open-source tools that efficiently store and retrieve IRIG-106 Chapter 10 data to/from a file-based database. We will demonstrate a method that facilitates a separation between the parsing of raw input data and the display of desired information at a user-defined sample rate. This open-source based solution provides a low-cost, reliable, and efficient means for handling large amounts of data at a high rate of speed.
  • RAPIDLY RECONFIGURABLE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Noonan, Patrick J.; Whittington, Austin J.; Ibaroudene, Hakima; Moodie, Myron L.; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    The growth of network and distributed technologies in flight test instrumentation (FTI) has provided the benefits of flexibility, scalability, and compatibility with prevalent computing capabilities. However, to achieve these capabilities, the complexity of each piece of FTI and the overall system has increased dramatically. Even with systems composed of equipment from a single vendor, it is important to have management systems that provide the flexibility to adapt quickly to various system configurations and present unified information to the flight test users. The growth of network technologies and then standardized approaches such as iNET standards becoming accepted IRIG 106 standards is leading to the growth of multi-vendor systems. These multi-vendor systems further increase the need for rapidly reconfigurable management systems. This paper describes a constraints engine we have developed to enable flexible system management systems and reflects on how these techniques have been used successfully in the iNET System Manager.
  • PREDICTIVE TELEMETRY MODELS FOR AEROSPACE FLIGHT MISSIONS

    Liaghati, Amir; Chang, Nick; Liaghati, Mahsa; Blumer, John; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Designing an efficient telemetry system is one of the most challenging tasks in the aerospace industry due to the limited telemetry bandwidth and the restricted radio frequency spectrum allocation. In a traditional telemetry system design, a large percentage of the allotted bandwidth is consumed by the overhead information to follow various standards and protocols which results in inefficiency of output data. A dynamic simulation model is created by using the Matlab/Simulink to analyze the telemetry system performance, and it is also used to predict the overall downlink data, including sensor instrumentation, flight critical information, video, and the Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) overhead over the mission event timeline.
  • LDPC CODED APSK FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

    Perrins, Erik; Pathak, Sumant; Univ Kansas, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    This paper presents the performance of capacity-approaching low-density parity check (LDPC) coded amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) over aeronautical telemetry channels. We show the bit-error rate results for code-rates of 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, and 4/5 with 16 and 32 point constellations. Results are presented and compared between an optimal and sub-optimal reduced-complexity demodulating system. We also compare the results with SOQPSK-TG under similar channel conditions and provide an estimate of backoff needed for implemention with power amplifiers.
  • MULTI-BIT BIT-FLIPPING ALGORITHM FOR COLUMN WEIGHT-4 LDPC CODES

    Xiao, Xin; Vasic, Bane; Lin, Shu; Univ Arizona; UC Davis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes with column weight-4 are widely used in many commu-nication and storage systems. However, traditional hard decision decoding algorithms such as the bit-flipping (BF) algorithm suffer from error floor due to trapping sets in LDPC codes. In this paper, to lower error floor of the BF algorithm over the Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC), we design a set of decoding rules incorporated within the BF algorithm for column weight-4 LDPC codes. Given a column weight-4 LDPC code, the dominate error patterns of the BF algorithm are first specified, and according to the designed rules, additional bits at both variable nodes (VN) and check nodes (CN) provide more information for the BF algorithm to identify the dominate error patterns, so that the BF algorithm could deliberately flip some bits to break them. Simulation results show that the modified BF algorithm eliminates all 4-error patterns and lowers the Bit Error Rate (BER) for at least two orders of magnitude with a trivial increment of complexity.
  • LINK QUALITY METRICS FOR ADAPTIVE CODING AND MODULATION WITH SOQPSK AND OFDM

    Wang, Enkuang D.; Brothers, Timothy J.; Causey, Richard T.; Georgia Tech Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    In previous work, we presented a link quality metric for adaptive modulation and coding of two standard telemetry waveforms, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and shaped-offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK). That metric unified error vector magnitude (EVM) and Godard dispersion, for OFDM and SOQPSK, respectively, in the contexts of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. In this paper, we present an alternative metric based on low density parity check (LDPC) decoding iterations. We show this new metric to be an equally effective substitute for AWGN channels but also to be applicable to a wider variety of channels, including those with multipath and interference. Furthermore, we show the metric to be robust within sub-optimal, lower complexity receiver architectures.
  • PERFORMANCE OF DIRECTIONAL MODULATION SYSTEMS IN FADING CHANNELS

    Borah, Deva K.; Curry, Elam; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Physical layer security techniques have received increasing interests in recent years due to their ability to provide additional security and their ability to be combined with conventional higher layer security measures. One such physical layer security technique is the directional modulation (DM), where the goal is to provide unhindered communication in an intended direction while hindering the communication in unintended directions. In this paper, we study the effect of Rician fading on a system employing a DM technique that minimizes the intersymbol distance in unintended directions. The performance of the system is investigated for varying ratios of the line-of-sight and scattered signal power, or Rician K-factors. The effect of Rician fading on the bit error rate (BER) performance in intended and unintended directions is studied.
  • ON IF-TO-BASEBAND TRANSLATION AND RESAMPLING IN SAMPLED-DATA RECEIVERS

    Rice, Michael; Hogstrom, Christopher; Nash, Chris; BYU, Dept Elec & Comp Eng (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    This paper summarizes the design of a discrete-time quadrature downconversion and resampling processor that operates on samples of a 70 MHz IF signal. The unique properties of discrete-time processing—aliasing due to resampling bandpass signals and polyphase filter decompositions—are applied to create a low-complexity approach that does not require any arithmetic operations at the IF sample rate. The required tasks are performed in two stages: a downsample-by-2 operation followed by a more traditional resampler based on a polyphase filterbank.
  • PERFORMANCE RESULTS USING DATA QUALITY ENCAPSULATION (DQE) AND BEST SOURCE SELECTION (BSS) IN AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY ENVIRONMENTS

    Geoghegan, Mark; Schumacher, Robert; Quasonix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    Flight test telemetry environments can be particularly challenging due to RF shadowing, interference, multipath propagation, antenna pattern variations, and large operating ranges. In cases where the link quality is unacceptable, applying multiple receiving assets to a single test article can significantly improve the overall link reliability. The process of combining multiple received streams into a single consolidated stream is called Best Source Selection (BSS). Recent developments in BSS technology include a description of the maximum likelihood detection approach for combining multiple bit sources, and an efficient protocol for providing the real-time data quality metrics necessary for optimal BSS performance. This approach is being standardized and will be included in Appendix 2G of IRIG-106-17. This paper describes the application of this technology and presents performance results obtained during flight testing.
  • OPTIMIZING CODED 16-APSK FOR AERONAUTICAL MOBILE TELEMETRY

    Rice, Michael; Josephson, Chad; Perrins, Erik; BYU, Dept Elec & Comp Eng; Univ Kansas, Dept Elec Eng & Comp Sci (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    This paper investigates the application of 16-APSK modulation to aeronautical mobile telemetry. The peak-to-average power ratio vs. code rate tradeoff is mapped to an optimization problem involving spectral efficiency and the constellation parameters. The optimization results produce a theoretically optimum solution that is 3.95 times more spectrally efficient as uncoded SOQPSK-TG. When implementation losses and the available IRIG 106 LDPC code rates are factored in, the advantage drops to 3.20 times the spectral efficiency of SOQPSK-TG.

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