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Proceedings of the Hydrology section of the Annual Meeting of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. Full text manuscripts of work presented. Research related to water resources, water management, and hydrologic studies primarily focused regionally on southwestern US.

Volume 18. Proceedings of the 1988 Meetings of the Arizona Section American Water Resources Association and the Hydrology Section Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science.

April 16, 1988, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona


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Recent Submissions

  • Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, Volume 18 (1988)

    Unknown author (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • Current Residential Water Conservation Practices and Behaviors: Comparing Two Populations

    France, Glenn; University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    The availability of quality water is an important issue facing the residents of Tucson, Arizona and several communities in the Southwestern United States. As cities continue to grow, more emphasis is being placed on the importance of adopting efficient water use practices and behaviors. A water conservation demonstration, education, and research single family residence named Casa del Agua (Spanish for House of Water) has been established in Tucson, Arizona. Water conservation information is presented to the public via oral and video presentations and a guided tour of the perimeter of the residence. A questionnaire is given to the visitors as they arrive for the tour. The responses to this questionnaire make it possible to determine the types of water conservation behavior being practiced by the visitors to Casa del Agua. Water conservation attitude questions were also included in the questionnaires as were questions about several water issues. From this preliminary study, it has been determined that the levels of adoption of water conservation behaviors have been low to modest. It appears that many of the visitors to Casa del Agua have about the same level of knowledge concerning water conservation as the general public, although the random survey data for the Tucson area has yet to be analyzed. A comparison was made of similar questions asked in a random survey conducted in the Phoenix metropolitan area March 17 -20, 1988. Some of the findings include: 1) The amounts of self- reported water conservation behavior adoption are similar, although the residents of the Phoenix area seem to report a slightly higher percentage of water conservation practices being implemented. 2) Few respondents from either survey indicated they have attended a water conservation demonstration or workshop. 3) Negative public perceptions of water utilities need to be addressed. 4) Water conservation programs that include economic incentives are favored by both survey populations.
  • Water Resources Research Center Serves the Arizona Water Community

    Gelt, Joe; Waterstone, Marv; University of Arizona, Office of Arid Land Studies, Tucson, Arizona 85721; University of Arizona, Water Resources Research Center, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • The Phoenix Water Resource Plan - 1987

    Regil, Phil; City of Phoenix Water and Wastewater Department, Phoenix, AZ 85004 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    The Phoenix Water Resource Plan-1987 is the official water resource plan for the City of Phoenix, Arizona. It covers the areas of supply, demand management and supply augmentation. The plan also addresses the issue of drought management.
  • The Second Management Plan: A Management Strategy for the 1990s

    Jacobs, Katharine L.; Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona Department of Water Resources (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • The Qanats of Yazd

    Zauderer, Jeffrey; Office of Arid Land Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • Water Contamination Sites in the Southwest: Compiling a Data Base

    Rivard, Donald T.; Karpiscak, Martin M.; DeCook, K. James; France, Glenn W.; Osborn, Donald E.; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    The University of Arizona, under a contract from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), investigated water contamination problems in six Southwestern States -- Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. A variety of surface and groundwater problems were encountered, including 1) high total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations, 2) contamination by organic compounds, 3) contamination due to high concentrations of inorganic compounds, 4) biological contamination, 5) radioactive contamination, and 6) toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Literature and computer searches provided an overview of existing problems, but no central depository of information on water contamination problems was found to exist. Specific information was obtained from federal, state, and local government agencies concerned with water quality. Data were collected via telephone interviews, letters, and in- person office visits. Limitations inherent in these data collection methods included, 1) not knowing if all the correct contacts were made concerning a specific problem or site, 2) inability to ascertain whether all contacts were willing and /or able to supply complete, accurate, and updated information, 3) possible bypassing of important data sources, and 4) delays in receiving reports and materials by mail from telephone contacts. Findings indicate that many localities in the Southwest have water contamination problems in some form; more than sixty sites have been described to date.
  • Occurrence of Enteric Viruses and Parasites in Reclaimed Wastewater Used for Irrigation in Arizona

    De Leon, Ricardo; Naranjo, Jaime E.; Rose, Joan B.; Gerba, Charles P.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology and of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    The State of Arizona recently implemented virus and parasite standards for discharge and reuse of effluent. This study monitored for two years the enterovirus and Giardia content of reuse effluent from several Arizona wastewater treatment facilities. All treatment facilities met the restricted access irrigation virus standard of 125 enteric virus/40 L, but most plants would have to upgrade their treatment for open access year -round reuse which has a 1 enteric virus/40 L standard. Up to 43% of samples from facilities with primary treatment and oxidation ponds were positive and exceeded 1 enteric virus/40 L. Also, 27% of secondary (activated sludge) effluent samples, which were sand filtered and disinfected by ultraviolet light, were positive and exceeded the 1 enteric virus/40 L standard. Plants using sand filtration and /or chlorine disinfection of activated sludge effluent had the fewest positive samples (20% positive and only 12.5% exceeded 1 enteric virus/40 L). Parasites are monitored for presence or absence in recommended volumes. Giardia monitoring is required for effluent intended for food crop irrigation or full body contact recreation categories.
  • Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Urban Lakes: Preliminary Results

    Amalfi, Frederick A.; Sommerfeld, Milton R.; Department of Botany, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    A preliminary survey of several urban lakes in the Phoenix metropolitan area was undertaken to assess the degree of accumulation of priority pollutant metals and petroleum -based hydrocarbons in these impoundments. Three sediment samples were collected from each lake along a transect (from a probable point of stormwater addition to the opposite shore), and were composited on an equal weight basis prior to analysis. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from 30 to 8000 mg /kg dry weight. The concentration ranges (mg /kg dry weight) of total metals were: arsenic 7-26, copper 25-2800, chromium 14-55, nickel 5-40, lead < 1-138, selenium < 0.5-1.1, and zinc 33-239. Silver and cadmium were undetectable (< 5.0 and < 0.5 mg /kg, respectively). Factors that may be associated with the magnitude of accumulation in urban lakes include lake age, primary source of influent, reception of stormwater runoff, mechanical aeration of the water, and direct chemical addition.
  • Relationship Between Soil Spectral Properties and Sand, Silt, and Clay Content of the Soils on the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center

    Suliman, Ahmed S.; Post, Donald F.; University of Arizona, Department of Soil and Water Science, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • Mapping and Characterization of the Soils on the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center

    Post, Donald F.; Mack, Chris; Camp, Philip D.; Suliman, Ahmed S.; University of Arizona and USDA Soil Conservation Service, Department of Soil and Water Science, Tucson, AZ 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • Initial Survival and Growth of Tree Seedlings in a Water Harvesting Agrisystem

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
  • Mapping the Areal Precipitation over Arizona - Using Kriging Technique

    Karnieli, Arnon; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Tucson, Arizona 85719; University of Arizona, Water Resources Research Center (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    The classical methods for interpolating and spatial averaging of precipitation fields fail to quantify the accuracy of the estimate. On the other hand, kriging is an interpolation method for predicting values of regionalized variables at points (punctual kriging) or average values over an area (block kriging). This paper demonstrates the use of the kriging method for mapping and evaluating precipitation data for the state of Arizona. Using 158 rain gage stations with 30 years or more of record, the precipitation over the state has been modeled as a realization of a two dimensional random field taking into consideration the spatial variability conditions. Three data sets have been used: (1) the mean annual precipitation over the state; (2) the mean summer rainy season; and (3) the mean winter rainy season. Validation of the empirical semi-variogram for a constant drift case indicated that the exponential model was appropriate for all the data sets. In addition to a global kriging analysis, the data have been examined under an anisotropic assumption which reflects the topographic structure of the state.
  • Factors Affecting Seasonal and Annual Precipitation in Arizona

    Karnieli, Arnon; Osborn, Herbert B.; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)
    Seasonal and annual precipitation vary considerably in Arizona, primarily because of topographic influences. Precipitation data have been analyzed by several investigators over the years. Arizona has been subdivided into precipitation zones, and seasonal and annual precipitation isohyetal maps are available from several sources. Because of a paucity of raingages in the more mountainous regions, however, isohyetal lines in these regions have been largely estimated based on the assumptions of topographic influences. Now, with 158 raingages with 30 or more years of record, topographic factors can be combined with greater knowledge of the sources and paths of moisture into the state to better define annual and seasonal precipitation variability. Elevation and aspect appear to be the principal parameters for analyzing precipitation within the state, with the Mogollon Rim exerting the greatest influence on winter precipitation. Higher than anticipated summer rainfall in southeastern Arizona (based on elevation and aspect) suggest that sources and availability of atmospheric moisture may be a strong parameter in analyzing summer rainfall.
  • A Model of Snowpack Dynamics in Forest Openings

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Guertin, D. Phillip; Rasmussen, William O.; School of Renewable Naturla Resources, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 1988-04-16)