Recent Submissions

  • The Antonine Wall: Reasons for the Roman Retreat

    Sund, Kira Caitlin (The University of Arizona., 2014)
  • Linking Self-Perception of Stressful Experiences with Blood Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Undergraduate College Students

    Wiley, Kyle Steven (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    A large body of research suggests self-perception of stressful experiences is not always a good predictor of stress biomarkers. On this front, anthropologists have an opportunity to disentangle the interactions between individual perceptions of stress and the stress response. To better understand these interactions we chose a sampling frame that allows individual participants to self-identify as high, medium, and low stress responders. We chose to conduct this research in an undergraduate student community for two reasons: 1) final exams serve as a similarly timed stressor, 2) given the perceived stress associated with student work loads, recruitment should be easier in an undergraduate community. With two data collection points, we recruited and sampled thirty-two students. Stress biomarker data include blood pressure and salivary cortisol, analyzed using Salimetrics high sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay kits. A short questionnaire was used to indicate an individuals’ perception of the role of stress in their lives. Our interview data suggest an awareness of highly variable responses to stress. By comparing the interview data to stress biomarkers across self-designated categories of stress reactions we plan to link variation in perception, reactivity, and biomarkers to develop a more nuanced understanding of the stress response and its physiological outcomes.
  • Medical Interpreters: Bridging Language Barriers as Cultural Advocates

    Polasek, Staci Nichole (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    In this thesis I take an anthropological approach to examining the doctor-patient relationship and how barriers to this relationship, such as language or cultural differences, effect medical treatment. This literature review analyzes questions such as: What are the roles of medical interpreters, how can medical interpreters act as advocates for the patients, and how do they affect the trust in the doctor5patient relationship? I examine the impacts on trust of cultural differences, language barriers, and use of Medical Interpreters within the doctor-patient relationship. By better understanding the doctor-patient relationship from an anthropological perspective, I will answer questions that show how doctors and patients can establish trust, overcome language barriers, and have higher cultural competency. These answers will aid in closing the gaps between doctors and patients and renew a stronger-trusting relationship. The use of Medical Interpreters is the key to improving the relationship and overall health of limited English speaking patients.
  • Violence and Recidivism at Point of Pines and Turkey Creek Pueblo Through Cranial Analysis

    Lacroix-Martin, Jillian (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    This thesis documents the incidence of cranial trauma from the Mogollon sites of Turkey Creek and Point of Pines Pueblo, spanning the time from A.D. 1000- 1450. The Mogollon were located in the American Southwest and during this time period the population began to coalesce and eventually dispersed. This dispersal led to increased warfare and pillaging of resources and women and represents a time of considerable social change and tension throughout these two regions. The comparisons of cranial trauma made by placement of trauma on cranium, sex of the individual, and also the number and sex of individuals with evidence of recidivism may suggest the use of domestic violence towards women in the population. This is important because it may provide a snapshot into the violence that was used among the Mogollon. Data found that out of 518 skeletal samples, 40 (7.72%) showed signs of cranial trauma. Out of these 40 subjects there were 19 females (47.50%), 16 males (40.00%), 1 sub-adult (2.50%), and 4 unknown (10.00%). Out of these 40 subjects, 7 females (17.50%) and 5 males (12.50%) showed evidence of recidivism. By mapping cranial trauma based upon sex on one skull, the pattern of injury for females were found to be more centrally located on the frontal bone and along the saggital suture and more randomized all around the skull for males. Although these results were in accordance with the hypotheses tested for in this experiment, the results were too close to provide adequate support for domestic violence against women in these pueblos during this time period.
  • Cultivating Community: Social Networks, Gardening, and Community Resilience in the Sonoran Desert

    Kokroko, Kenneth Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    This research seeks to identify, describe, and understand community as it is expressed in the local and urban gardening sphere of Tucson, Arizona. Underlying this effort is the ethnographic intent to qualitatively document and explore whether, and ultimately how, members or components of the social network interact. The relevance of this research lies not only in better understanding how people experience community in specific contexts, but also in its aim to demonstrate that both physical and virtual relationships - virtual referring to a conceptualized essence or effect not manifest in concrete appearance or form - contribute to the development, manifestation, and common ownership of communities. Gardening-related and support-oriented resources and spaces in Tucson - namely the Seed Library of the Pima County Public Library and Las Milpitas de Cottonwood Community Farm - served as field sites for this research and represent vertices which link subgroups physically and virtually within the social network itself. Importantly, examining the synergy characterizing relations between members and components of the network aids efforts to qualitative describe the community’s resilience.
  • Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: A Video Tour of the Carbon-14 Dating Process

    Genovese, Taylor Robert (The University of Arizona., 2013)
    The purpose of this project is to create a video that engages and informs an undergraduate audience about the Carbon-14 dating process. The video takes you through the history of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Lab at the University of Arizona as well as discussion of what exactly carbon-dating is. The audience is then given a walking tour of the actual accelerator while the steps of Carbon-14 dating are explained.
  • What is Microfinance? Interesting Theoretical and Economic Critiques with Real Life Experiences in Guatemala

    Gorshkova, Anna (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
    This study investigates the market reaction to the required expensing of employee stock options. The main focus of this thesis is to test whether the market reacts more negatively to stock options that are expensed on the income statement compared to stock options that are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. The results are examined by transparency, conservatism, and the efficient market hypothesis. Over the recent decades, a new trend in development has emerged, shining hope on alleviating poverty in countries with underdeveloped economies. "Micro finance" strives to provide financial services to people who otherwise would not have access to these services and resources. In doing so, it hopes to incorporate those individuals into a broader economy. Undoubtedly, micro financing has helped individual people, but the overarching effect of alleviating poverty is debatable and should be examined in order to draw conclusions on how micro financing as a development tool can be improved. This project seeks to examine the micro finance industry, specifically with the involvement of women in Guatemala, with theoretical and economic critiques. The writer's personal internship experience at a microfinance NGO "Namaste Guatemaya" in Guatemala, is combined with independent research of academic texts and historical archives at CIRMA, the "Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamerica" in Antigua. The writer concludes that although micro finance organizations provide crucial help to individuals, they should not be relied on as the sole development strategy of any underdeveloped country, including Guatemala. Larger structural changes are crucial in order for true development to occur.
  • Anthropology Museums and the Search for Social Relevancy

    Mills, Hannah Marie (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
    This thesis examines the recent trend in the museum world of increasing the relevancy of museums exhibits toward the public. It focuses on Anthropology museums and their relationship with the history of the discipline of anthropology and its core theories. Through a literature review and case study examination, I identify key challenges that museums with anthropological content face in trying to increase their significance and impact. By addressing these challenges, this thesis also evaluates the strategies museums have used in the recent past for their relative success and effectiveness. Particular emphasis is placed on the Arizona State Museum's Through the Eyes of the Eagle as a case study, as I was personally involved in the exhibition's process and can therefore share deeper insights into the functioning of that exhibit.
  • An Athlete's Posture: A Discussion of the Evolutionary Biomechanics and Neurobiology of Trunk Alignment in Dancers

    Griggs, Rocio Belen (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
    Bipedalism has been discussed and disputed for as long as anthropology has existed. The question remains, however, why did bipedalism evolve? Anthropologists have been unable to find a definitive answer. In an attempt to answer this question, a dancer’s plasticity is discussed after Homo sapien evolution is briefly compared to a chimpanzee’s current body structure. It is argued that dance may have been the intermediary point for the shift from quadrupedalism to bipedalism due to the physical attractiveness of mating dances acting as selectors of mates and consequent genes, as well as the intellectual and emotional benefits of dance.
  • Spatial Dynamics of the Earliest Human Occupants of Tibet

    Clair, Erin Joy (The University of Arizona., 2012-05)
    My research, conducted summer 2011, was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of how, when, and why prehistoric peoples initially extended their range up from the lower elevation valleys of northern India and Tibet to the 4,000 – plus - meter elevations of the Tibet Plateau. Recent archaeological research headed by Professor John W. Olsen in western Tibet suggests multiple routes onto the Plateau at different times in prehistory. My research focused on: 1) conducting reconnaissance for ancient sources of raw stone material and 2) examining ancient river terrace and lake shoreline formations to determine the timing and directionality of human movement onto the plateau. We identified new sites to help reconstruct prehistoric land - use patterns in one segment of the Yarlung Zangbo as a hypothetical model for understanding population dynamics on a larger geographical scale. Global positioning systems (GPS) data allowed me to generate hypotheses of prehistoric land - use in south - central Tibet that can be tested in future field seasons against archaeological and spatial data collected over a larger region. This thesis aims to examine data collected during summer field seasons with well - documented geographic locations of sites, archaeological evidence, and research to understand migration onto the Tibet Plateau.
  • Stratigraphy and Geochronology of La Playa Archaeological Site, Sonora, Mexico

    Copeland, Audrey Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2011-05)
    The current study examines the stratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoecology of La Playa, an Early Agricultural period archaeological site (3600-1800 BP) located in northern Sonora, Mexico. We distinguished seven stratigraphic units ranging in age from >44,570 to 680 cal yr BP. All of the cultural remains are contained in Unit B, which spans from 4700-1580 BP. Deposits from Unit B represent overbank deposition from the nearby Rio Boquillas. The majority of cultural materials come from Units B4 and B5, which correspond to the Cienega phase (2800-1800 BP) of the Early Agricultural period. This period coincides with the first sedentary agricultural populations in the region and is marked by thousands of archaeological features including roasting pits, human burials, and extensive canal systems at La Playa. The presence of semi-aquatic and aquatic snails demonstrates that water was present year round in the canal system. The stable and radiometric isotopic evidence suggests that the early agriculturalists diverted ground water, likely from the nearby Rio Boquillas. Cultural remains from Unit C spanning the period <1580-680 BP are rare, suggesting major population decline during this time. There is little to no evidence of bioturbation in Unit C, suggesting that the landscape was thinly vegetated at this time. La Playa has experienced up to five meters of erosion during historic times, exposing a complex alluvial stratigraphy and numerous cultural features, which has greatly complicated archaeological interpretations at the site.

    Tankersley, Sara J (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)

    Hoffmeister, Kristin Keir (The University of Arizona., 2009-05)

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