Four Monuments Ethnographic Use Study
Under Cooperative Agreement Number H8601010007, BARA contracted with the NPS to amend the document review with primary data from representatives of the tribes that were found to be historically and culturally affiliated with Sunset Crater Volcano, Walnut Canyon, and Wupatki National Monument. Additionally, this addendum to the affiliation study includes information about traditional uses of park resources as described by tribal representatives. This information is critical to park management and for compliance with various laws, regulations, executive orders, and policies so that park managers can better address tribal requests for continued access and use of park resources. The first purpose of this study is to amend the completed literature search with primary data collected with tribal representatives of the six ethnic groups. This data will provide contemporary validation of the literature search and contribute additional information related to tribal affiliation. The second purpose of this study is to provide primary data about past and present tribal uses of park resources. As a Traditional Use Study of park resources, this effort contributes information essential to park management as well as to compliance with a myriad of laws, regulations, executive orders, and NPS policies. The specific objectives of this study include identification of natural resources at each park that are used for traditional purposes, descriptions of the cultural importance of these resources, and, where possible, links between contemporary resource use and records of historic use.