The Vegetable Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.

This report was first published in 1965.

The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.

Both historical and current Vegetable Reports have been made available via the UA Campus Repository, as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.

If you have questions about the Vegetable Reports, email pubs@ag.arizona.edu. You can also visit the CALS Publications website for additional information.

Other commodity-based agricultural research reports available in the UA Campus Repository include: Citrus Reports, Cotton Reports, Forage & Grain Reports, Sugarbeet Reports, and Turfgrass Reports.

Contents for Vegetable Report 2006

Crop Management Insect Management Pathogen Management

Recent Submissions

  • Examination of Soil Solarization as a Management Tool for Fusarium Wilt of Lettuce: 2005 Field Trial

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Fusarium wilt of lettuce was first recognized in Arizona in 2001. Since this first discovery, the pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (Fol), has been recovered from infected lettuce plants from approximately 30 different fields. This fungus is a soil-borne pathogen that can remain viable in soil for many years. Cultural disease control measures, such as extended soil flooding and soil solarization, have shown promise in managing Fusarium wilt in other cropping systems. The specific research objective during the 2005 growing season was to further evaluate the effect of preplant solarization of planting beds on subsequent development of Fusarium wilt on lettuce. There was no significant difference between the short (28 days) and long (56 days) solarization period in the subsequent number of diseased lettuce plants; therefore, the disease incidence values for both solarization periods were combined and compared to nonsolarized plots. At each data collection date, the number of lettuce plants showing symptoms of Fusarium wilt was significantly lower in solarized beds compared to nonsolarized beds. At plant maturity (Nov 18), Fusarium wilt had claimed virtually all lettuce plants of the cultivar 'Lighthouse' growing in nonsolarized soil; however, only 19% of lettuce plants of the same cultivar growing in solarized soil showed disease symptoms. This equates to an 81% reduction in diseased plants in solarized soil compared to nonsolarized soil. The results of this field trial suggest that a 30-day summer solarization treatment of lettuce beds can significantly reduce the inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae to levels that would allow substantial growth of a susceptible lettuce cultivar. Additional field studies are needed to refine the solarization process to potentially achieve further increases in efficiency of destroying propagules of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae in infested fields.
  • Evaluation of Fungicides as Potential Management Tools for Phytophthora Crown Rot on Pepper Plants

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Phytophthora blight of peppers (Capsicum annuum) is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. In Arizona, the root and crown rot phase of the disease initially can appear on plants early in the growing season in areas of the field where soil remains saturated with water after an irrigation or rainfall event. Disease severity can increase dramatically due to summer rains during July and August in the southeastern Arizona production area. The efficacy of the systemic fungicide mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold)) for control of Phytophthora blight on pepper has been documented; however, in many pepper production regions, populations of the pathogen insensitive to this fungicide have developed. Other chemistries, including dimethomorph (Acrobat) as well as some new fungicides in development, have activity on some species of Phytophthora and associated diseases on crops other than pepper. The objective of the following study was to evaluate additional chemistries for efficacy in suppressing development of root and crown rot on pepper plants grown in soil naturally infested with Phytophthora capsici. In the first trial, nontreated pepper plants were all dead after an average elapsed time of 5 days in soil infested with P. capsici. In the same trial, no plants died after 66 days when the soil was treated with Ranman (cyazofamid), V-10161 (fluopicolide), and Reason (fenamidone) + Previcur Flex (propamocarb). Additionally, only one out of five pepper plants died when treated with Omega (fluazinam), NOA-446510 (mandipropamid) and AgriFos (mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid). For all of these treatments, the duration of plant survival and fresh weight of plant shoots and roots did not differ significantly from plants grown in sterilized soil. Similar results were obtained in the second trial. The results from these trials suggest that several fungicides currently not registered for use on peppers may be effective components of a management program for Phytophthora root and crown rot. The data is promising; however, additional studies in field soil naturally infested with P. capsici are needed to confirm the preliminary findings of these initial experiments.
  • Assessment of Fungicide Performance for Management of Powdery Mildew on Cantaloupe in 2006

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Powdery mildew occurs annually on melons in Arizona. Podosphaera xanthii (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) is the plant pathogenic fungus that causes powdery mildew on cucurbits, such as cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash. Development of powdery mildew on melons is favored by moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy. Existing products as well as materials under development were evaluated and compared for efficacy in management of powdery mildew on cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 2006 at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center. A high level of disease had developed when disease severity data was recorded at crop maturity (Jun 15). Among treatments, the degree of powdery mildew control ranged from 0 to 100%. Among tested products, several are registered for use in Arizona for control of powdery mildew on melons. Using a mixture of products or rotating among efficacious fungicides with different modes of action is important to minimize the development of insensitivity in the pathogen population to one or more of these active ingredients.
  • Efficacy of Fungicides for Management of Powdery Mildew on Lettuce in 2006

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Powdery mildew on lettuce is caused by the fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Erysiphe cichoracearum). The disease is favored by moderate to warm temperatures and relatively dry weather conditions. Several fungicides were evaluated for their ability to suppress development of powdery mildew on lettuce in 2006. Powdery mildew was first detected Jan 26 in this trial. The data in the accompanying table illustrate the degree of control obtained by applications of the various materials tested in this trial. Among treatments, the degree of powdery mildew suppression ranged from virtually complete to minimal; however, all treatments significantly reduced the severity of both mildew diseases compared to nontreated plants. This trial was initiated as a combined downy and powdery mildew trial; therefore, some of the products were placed in the test specifically for downy mildew. Due to low humidity levels and no rainfall during the trial, no downy mildew developed.
  • Evaluation of a Biologically Intensive Integrated Pest Management System for Sclerotinia Drop on Lettuce: 2006 Study

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Sclerotinia drop of lettuce, caused by the pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum, is a serious disease in most regions were this crop is grown. Conventional fungicides, such as Rovral (iprodione) and Endura (boscalid), are usually applied after lettuce is thinned and once more 2 to 3 weeks later. Two biological products, Contans (Coniothyrium minitans) and Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), are also available. In earlier field trials conducted from 2001 to 2004 in the presence of S. minor, the mean reduction in disease by Contans, Serenade and Endura was 36, 21 and 51%, respectively. The main objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of the biological products Contans and Serenade, applied alone or in combination with each other or the conventional fungicide Endura, within a biologically intensive integrated pest management system for Sclerotinia drop on lettuce caused by S. minor. The study was conducted at the The University of Arizona, Yuma Valley Agricultural Center. Sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor were produced in the laboratory. Lettuce ‘Winterhaven’ was seeded and sclerotia were applied to the plots on Nov 14, 2005 and the final disease assessment at plant maturity was made Mar 13, 2006. There was a high degree of variability among the replicate plots for each treatment in this trial, as well as an overall low disease incidence, which made statistical comparisons of data difficult. The only treatment in this trial that significantly lowered disease incidence compared to nontreated plots was an initial application of Contans at seeding followed by Endura at thinning. This study was established in a field containing well-draining loam soil, which combined with the lack of any rainfall and the use of furrow irrigations in January and February, which kept the tops of beds dry, likely contributed to the excessive variability and low incidence of disease.
  • Comparison of Products to Manage Sclerotinia Drop of Lettuce in 2006

    Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Sclerotinia drop on lettuce is caused by two soil-borne fungi, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Moist soil and moderate temperatures favor this disease. Some registered products as well as new chemistries in development were compared for their ability to suppress Sclerotinia drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing season in 2005-2006. Sclerotia of each pathogen were incorporated into plots after lettuce thinning and just before the first application of test compounds. In plots infested with S. minor, a significant reduction in disease compared to untreated plots was achieved with Omega, Rovral, Endorse, Endura, and Switch. For plots containing S. sclerotiorum, disease was significantly reduced by Contans, Rovral, Omega and Endura. For a valid comparison of products for control of Sclerotinia drop of lettuce, it is important to compare the results obtained from more than one field study. The reader is urged to review previous studies in addition to this report to get an accurate picture of the relative efficacy of tested compounds for control of Sclerotinia drop. Fungicides are not the only tools available to growers to manage Sclerotinia drop. Cultural methods, such as soil solarization or soil flooding in the summer, as well as crop rotation, can greatly reduce the number of viable sclerotia in an infested field. Use of these cultural methods alone or in combination with fungicide treatments can result in dramatic reductions in the incidence of Sclerotinia drop of lettuce.
  • Optimal Spray Timing of Oberon and Courier for Managing Bemisia Whiteflies in Spring Cantaloupes

    Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Studies were conducted on spring cantaloupes from 2004-2006 to evaluate two adult and nymph based thresholds used for timing the application of Oberon (spiromesifen) and Courier (buprofezin) in spring melons for controlling whiteflies. The results of these studies demonstrate that these selective insecticides offer melon growers effective foliar management alternatives for controlling whiteflies. Both Oberon and Courier provided economic control of whitefly nymphs and significantly prevented sooty mold contamination when applied after populations exceeded either an adult threshold of 2 adults per leaf or an immature threshold or 0.5 large nymph per 2 cm² leaf disc. Applied at these thresholds, both compounds provided consistent residual suppression of whitefly immature population growth for 21-28 days under spring growing conditions.
  • Action Thresholds for Aphid Management with Reduced-Risk and Conventional Insecticides in Desert Head Lettuce

    Palumbo, John; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Action thresholds, based on the percentage of plants infested, for the aphid pest complex found in head lettuce were evaluated in October, November and December plantings in 2005 and 2006 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. Action thresholds were also evaluated for their compatibility with newly developed reduced-risk and conventional insecticides. Although all five common aphid species were present in both years of the study, foxglove aphids provided most of the pest pressure. Compared with the SAC threshold treatment (sprayed-at colonization; essentially sprayed weekly until new aphid colonies were not found), action thresholds of 10% and 30% plants infested with 5 or more aphids resulted in fewer insecticide applications, while maintaining varying levels of head contamination at harvest. Despite variable pest pressure between years and planting dates, the threshold based on 10% infested plants performed as well as the SAC but with half as many sprays and no significant head contamination. However, significant head contamination was experienced when the 10% action threshold was used exclusively with reduced-risk insecticides.
  • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Head Lettuce in Arizona: 2004 – 2006

    Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in head lettuce grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard-Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the lettuce industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert lettuce production.
  • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Cantaloupes and Watermelons in Central Arizona: 2004 – 2006

    Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in cantaloupes and watermelons grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard-Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the melon industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert production.
  • Insect Crop Losses and Insecticide Usage for Spring Melons in Southwestern Arizona: 2004 – 2006

    Palumbo, John; Fournier, Al; Ellsworth, Peter; Nolte, Kurt; Clay, Pat; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Impact assessment is central to the evolution and evaluation of our IPM programs. Quantifiable metrics on insecticide use patterns, costs, targets, and frequency, crop losses due to all stressors of yield and quality, and other real world economic data (e.g., crop value) are our most objective tools for assessing change in our systems. We recently initiated a project to measure the impact of insect losses and insecticide uses in cantaloupes and watermelons grown in Yuma, AZ and the Bard–Winterhaven area of Imperial County, CA. The data generated in this report is useful for responding to pesticide information requests generated by EPA, and can provide a basis for regulatory processes such as Section 18 or 24c requests, as well as for evaluating the impact of our extension programs on risk reduction to growers. This information also confirms the value of PCAs to the melon industry by showing the importance of cost-effective management of insect pests in desert production.
  • Crop Phenology for Irrigated Cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.) in Arizona

    Soto-Ortiz, Roberto; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Galadima, Abraham; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    To determine growth and development patterns of irrigated melon (Cucumis melo L.) plants as a function of heat units accumulated after planting (HUAP), as well as to develop a general irrigated cantaloupe plant development model as a function of HUAP. Fifteen commercial melon fields managed by cooperator-growers were selected at five locations in Arizona from 2003 through 2006 to conduct phenological monitoring studies. Basic plant growth and development measurements were collected at phenological stages that corresponded to pre-bloom, early fruit set, early netting, and physiological maturity. Results indicate that in general, growth and development stages of melons occurred with a high degree of consistency as function of HUAP in all sites. Varietal differences did not appear to have large effects on phenological development. Also, a general irrigated cantaloupe plant development model as function of HUAP for all sites and varieties was obtained. The purpose of this phenological baseline or model is to assist growers in predicting and identifying critical stages of growth for crop management purposes. Early bloom occurred at 357 ± 41 HUAP; early fruit set at 619 ± 81 HUAP; early netting at 820 ± 82 HUAP; and physiological maturity (of primary fruit set or crown fruit) was identified to occur at 1297 ± 128 HUAP.
  • Crop Phenology for Irrigated Chiles (Capsicum annuum L.) in Arizona and New Mexico

    Soto-Ortiz, Roberto; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Galadima, Abraham; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    To determine growth and development patterns of irrigated green chile plants as a function of heat units accumulated after planting (HUAP), as well as to develop a general irrigated chile plant development model as a function of HUAP. Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 20055 at Sunsites in Cochise County, AZ (about 4,000 ft. elevation) and at the Massey Farm in the Animas Valley, NM (about 4,392 ft. elevation). Basic plant growth and development measurements were collected routinely and important phenological stages that corresponded to first bloom, early bloom, peak bloom, physiological maturity, and red harvest were identified and recorded. Results indicate that among all sites, all varieties have performed similarly in relation to HU accumulation patterns and preliminary plant phenology models are under development in this program. The primary difference between sites was that at Sunsites varieties tend to reach a 50/50 (green: red chile) ratio at 2900 HUAP and for Animas valley; this same ratio was reached at 3200 HUAP. Also, a general irrigated green chile plant development model as a function of HUAP for all sites and varieties was obtained. The purpose of this phenological baseline or model is to assist growers in predicting and identifying critical stages of growth for crop management purposes. First bloom occurred at 1369 ± 72 HUAP, early bloom at 1667 ± 79 HUAP, peak bloom at 1998 ± 84 HUAP; physiological maturity at 2285 ± 159 HUAP, and red chile harvest was identified to occur at 3295 ± 216 HUAP.
  • Cantaloupe Response to CN9™ Fertilizer

    Soto-Ortiz, Roberto; Silvertooth, Jeffrey C.; Galadima, Abraham; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2006-09)
    Field experiments were conducted at four sites in 2005 in the Yuma Valley, AZ (approximately 150 ft. elevation) to evaluate the performance of CN9 fertilizer [a N-calcium (Ca) based fertilizer (9-0-0-11)] in comparison to a conventional N fertilizer source with irrigated melons/cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.). Each field was divided into two equal (approximately 40 acres) sections. One section received the grower’s N fertilizer source (Conventional) while the other section received the CN9 fertilizer. Basic plant growth and development measurements, aboveground biomass, total and marketable yield, Sugar fruit content as well as total nutrient analysis were among the main variables analyzed. In general, all phenology variables responded similarly between conventional and CN9 treatments. Fresh weight yields ranging from 4,000 to 10,000 kg/ha were observed between conventional and CN9 treatments. Statistical analyses show that total yield between conventional and CN9 was statistically the same; with the exception of the Perriconi site. Similar results were observed for marketable yield. Brix values ranged from 10 to 14 percent, statistical differences for Brix values between the conventional and CN9 treatments were found on the Perriconi and Mason 80 sites where the conventional treatment had higher sugar content in the fruit. Overall, there were no differences in nutrient uptake and allocation patterns due to the addition of CN9 among experimental sites or sampling dates. Regarding the allocation of nutrients in the rind and flesh of melons, the same patterns between treatments at all sites were observed.