ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The Cotton Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.

This report, along with the Forage and Grain Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.

The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.

Both historical and current Cotton Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.

Other commodity-based agricultural research reports available in the UA Campus Repository include:
Citrus Reports | Forage & Grain Reports | Sugarbeet Reports | Turfgrass Reports | Vegetable Reports


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Contents for Cotton Report 1990

Recent Submissions

  • Exogenous L- and D-Proline Does Not Reduce NaCl Inhibition of Radidle Growth of Germinating Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Seeds

    Lehle, F. R.; Zegeer, A. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    The adaptive significance of proline (Pm) accumulation in cotton seeds can be assessed by determining if NaCl tolerance is influenced by changes in the Pm level of the seed. The objective of this study was to determine if exogenous L-Pro and D-Pro reduce NaCl inhibition of radicle growth of germinating cotton seeds. Seeds were imbibed for 24 h at 32°C before transfer to agar medium containing either Pro, NaCl or mixtures of both. Results indicate that exogenous Pro increases the Pro contents of cotton seed radicles and cotyledons to a similar extent. Such increases are independent of whether L- or D-Pro is fed exogenously. Results also show that exogenous Pro does not significantly reduce NaCl inhibition of radicle growth in germinating cotton seeds. .
  • Accumulation of Proline in Germinating Cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) Seeds During NaCl Stress

    Lehle, F. R.; Zegeer, A. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    The accumulation of proline (Pro) in plants during NaCl stress may have adaptive significance and the study of this response could reveal a genetic strategy for enhancing NaCl tolerance. Our objective was to determine if the Pro content of germinating cotton seeds is altered by exposure to exogenous NaCl. Seeds were imbibed for 24 h at 32°C before transfer to agar media containing NaCl. After 24 h of NaCl exposure, the Pro contents of radicles and cotyledons were measured using a colorimetric assay. Results showed that Pro contents of both radicles and cotyledons increased as the level of NaCl increased. The bulk of Pro content increases were restricted to the radicle and occurred in the range of NaC1 concentrations from 200 to 400 mM NaCl.
  • Effect of NaCl on the Growth of Germinating Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Seeds

    Lehle, F. R.; Zegeer, A. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Responses to environmental stresses such as excess salinity are difficult to understand if not studied under defined conditions. The objective of this study was to determine if cottonseed radicle and cotyledon growth during germination was affected by exogenous NaCl. Cottonseeds were imbibed in moistened paper toweling for 24 h at 32°C before transfer to an agar media containing selected concentrations of NaCl for an additional 24 h. Radicle linear growth extension was stimulated at low NaC1 concentrations (80 mM), but increasingly inhibited as NaCl concentrations increased from 160 to 400 mM. Radicle and cotyledon fresh weights were increasingly inhibited by NaCl concentrations between 0 and 400 mM. NaCl inhibition of radicle fresh weights was more pronounced than that of cotyledons. We conclude that the inhibitory effects of NaCl can be quantified as reductions in cottonseed radicle and cotyledon growth.
  • A Comparison of Three Cotton Tillage Systems

    Coates, W. E.; Thacker, G. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Two alternative tillage systems used significantly less energy than conventional tillage. The Sundance system used the least energy, averaging 35 horsepower-hours per acre (Hp-hr /ac), the Uprooter Shredder-Mulcher (USM) was intermediate at 50 Hp-hr /ac, and the conventional system used the most energy at 69 Hp-hr /ac. These energy savings translated directly into cost savings of about the same proportions. The USM and Sundance systems can plow down and prepare the next seedbed in about one-half the time that conventional tillage requires. In the two years of testing we could not measure any significant differences in cotton yield. So far, we have not found any significant differences in soil compaction.
  • Upland and Pima Cotton Response to Banded Phophate Fertilization

    Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Doerge, T. A.; Thacker, G. W.; Stedman, S. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Four field experiments were established in Arizona in 1988 and six in 1989 to evaluate the effects of banded phosphorus (P) fertilizer on cotton. Experiments each year involved both Upland (Gossvpium hirsutum L.) and American Pima (Q. barbadense L.). Banded applications of P fertilizer were made with placement of the concentrated band of fertilizer 6 in. below and 3 in. to the side of the zone of seed placement. Fertilizer sources of P₂O₅ were with 10-34-0 or 16-20-0. At all locations, a series of rates of applied P₂O₅ were established as the treatment variables, including a check (0 lb P₂O₅/acre). Rates of applied P ranged from 0 to 90 lb P₂O₅/acre, at increments of approximately 30 lb. P₂O₅/acre. In all cases, treatments in the field were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Plant measurements for plant height, flower numbers per unit area, number of mainstem nodes, and nodes to the first fndting branch were initiated by the fifth true leaf stage to evaluate plant response in terms of growth and development. Plant tissue samples were also taken at several stages of growth from each experiment throughout the growing season. Tissue samples consisted of petioles and leaf blades from the uppermost fully developed leaves. Petioles were analyzed for extractable PO₄-P and leaf blades for total P. Lint yield measurements also were taken. With the exception of one of the experimental locations in each year, no statistically significant differences (P≤0.05) were found among any treatments for any of the plant growth parameters. The same was true with regard to petiole PO₄-P and leaf blade total P levels measured. No significant differences among treatments were found for either Upland or Pima cotton with regard to lint yield in 1988 or 1989.
  • Sewage Sludge Effects on Soil Properties, Nitrogen Availability, and Yield at Marana, 1989

    Ottman, M. J.; Pepper, I. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Taylor, B. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
  • Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Cotton

    Silvertooth, J. C.; Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Malcuit, J. E.; Else, P. T.; Doerge, T. A.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Two field experiments were conducted in 1989 in Arizona to compare several methods of nitrogen (N) management in Upland and Pima cotton. Standard preplant, preplant plus sidedress, and use of soil and petiole analysis for NO₃⁻-N were the basic methods of N fertilization management compared. A nonfertilized check treatment also was included with the N management treatments, which were arranged in a randomized complete block design in each experiment. Preseason soil samples and a series of in- season petiole samples were taken for all treatments and analyzed for NO₃⁻-N. The concentrations of NO₃⁻-N in the petioles reflected the boll load obtained and the crop fruiting patterns as well as the N fertilization patterns in the respective treatments. Final lint yield analysis revealed distinct differences among the treatments imposed at the Maricopa location but no statistically significant differences at the Safford location.
  • Effect of Date of Planting and Irrigation Termination on Pink Bollworm Populations in Pima and Upland Cotton

    Terry, L. I.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Summers, C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Field experiments conducted in 1989 comparing effects of planting date and irrigation termination date on pink bollworm in both in- season and overwintering infestations indicated different responses depending upon the location and type of cotton. Tests were located at: Yuma Agricultural Center; Marana Agricultural Center; and Maricopa Agricultural Center. Infestations at Yuma ranged from 0% at early flowering to 80% infested bolls prior to harvest. Marana had equally high infestations at the end of the season, while Maricopa had the lowest infestations ranging from 2% to 5% for Pima and 3 %-17% for Upland. Planting date or species of cotton did not affect early infestation. Data comparing plots for overwintering infestations are still being evaluated. Continuous insecticide treatments were made at all locations after squaring began.
  • Planting Date and Susceptibility to Pink Bollworm

    Brown, P.; Huber, R.; Moore, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    The susceptibility of cotton to spring emergence of pink bollworm (PBW) was evaluated for a variety of planting dates in Pinal Maricopa, LaPaz and Yuma counties using historical climate records and heat-unit-based models that predict PBW emergence and cotton development. Early planted cotton proved most susceptible to the PBW emergence, however, cotton type (shoe vs. long staple) and springtime weather conditions both played an important role in overall susceptibility.
  • The Influence of ULV Malathion, Applied for Boll Weevil Control, on Other Pest and Beneficial Species in Arizona Cotton Fields

    Leggett, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
  • Early-season Cotton Square Removal with Ethephon and Initiation of Pink Bollworm Infestations

    Henneberry, T. J.; Bariola, L. A.; Chu, C. C.; Meng, T. Jr.; Deeter, B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Ethephon applied at rates of 0.50 or 0.75 lb AI/acre removed early-season squares and delayed initiation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossvpiella (Saunders) infestations and reduced the number of infested bolls on early-season fruiting branches, without affecting yield except for ethephon at 0.751b AI /acre at one location. Higher rates of application reduced yields. In most cases, ethephon treatments delayed flowering but plants compensated for removal of early- season squares and equalled or surpassed accumulated flowering of untreated control plants later in the season.
  • Sweetpotato Whitefly Populations in Cotton Genotypes at Poston, Arizona in 1988

    Butler, G. D. Jr.; Henneberry, T. J.; Perkins, H. H. Jr.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Studies were conducted to identify potential sources of cotton germ plasm resistant to sweetpotato whitefly (SPW), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Numbers of adult SPW sampled using black pan and vacuum methods showed reduced numbers of SPW on GC-EXP-7007 experimental variety vs. all other entries. However, numbers of SPW pupae on leaf samples in most cases were not different. Pima P-62 had the high numbers of SPW adults per blackpan sample, and highest number of pupae/leaf sample.
  • Gossyplure-baited Pink Bollworm Male Moth Trap Studies

    Chu, C. C.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Gossyplure, the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossvpiella (Saunders), sex pheromone is an excellent tool as a bait in traps for detection, survey, research and monitoring male moth populations. We studied the within - and between-seasonal changes of pink bollworm male moth catches in gossyplure-baited live traps installed in cotton fields each year from 1981 to 1988. Seasonal average number of male moths caught varied from 14/trap/night in 1982 to 148 /trap /night in 1981. Male moths caught/trap/night were highly correlated with the minimum air temperatures. The number of male moths caught from March to June were significantly correlated with those caught from July to August, indicating that early spring trapping can be used to identify potential problem fields.
  • Insecticide Efficacy on Beet Armyworm Infestations in Open and Closed Cotton Flowers and Effects of Flower Infestation on Boll Abcission

    Akey, D. H.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    In 1988 severe beet armywonn (BAW) infestations resulted in damaged cotton flowers and foliage. Some insecticide applications failed to eliminate larvae in the flowers because applications were applied before the flowers opened. Applications made after flowers were open were more effective. In 1989, tests were conducted to define further these results. Karate™ applied when cotton flowers were open achieved 90% control compared to 9% when flowers were closed in one test, and 97% compared to 13 %, respectively, in a second test (P\0.01). A higher percentage (18 %) of cotton bolls was shed on day 7 following flower infestations than were shed (6 %) when flowers were not infested.
  • Evaluation of Cotton for Resistance to Pink Bollworm

    Wilson, F. D.; Flint, H. M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Cotton cultivars and germ plasm lines were screened for resistance to pink bollworm. Sixteen advanced strains were selected for resistance to pink bollworm and/or high yield potential. In a regional early maturing germ plasm lines test, only the short- season check had less seed damage caused by pink bollworm than did the long-season check. Five lines yielded more lint than both checks. In a Pima test, Pima S-6 nectariless had 14% less seed damage than Pima S-6. Seven pink-bollworm-resistant germ plasm lines will be released in the near future.
  • Cottonseed Treatment Evaluations in Arizona, 1989

    Silvertooth, J. C.; Malcuit, J. E.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
  • Suppresion of Inflection of Cotton Seedlings by Rhizoetonia Solani in the Presence of Thielaviopsis Basicola, the Causal Agent of Black Root Rot

    Chapman, M. A.; Hine, R. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    High population levels of Rhizoctonia solani in a field in Coolidge, AZ which also contained Thielaviopsis basicola failed to cause the expected infection by R. solani in untreated seeds of Gossypium hirsutum. Growth chamber experiments with autoclaved soil amended with inoculum of both R. solani, and T. basicola had a significantly lower infection rate by R. solani than did the control soil with R. solani alone.
  • The Effect on Yield of Cotton Due to Incidence and Severity of Black Root Rot Caused by Thielaviopsis Basicola

    Chapman, M. A.; Hine, R. B.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Incidence of Black Root Rot of cotton and soil inoculum potential of the causal agent Thielaviopsis basicola were monitored throughout the season in two adjacent fields planted in mid April, 1987 in Duncan, Arizona. Mean inoculum potential in Field 1 soil was 65 cfu/g and 20 % of the seedlings were infected. In Field 2 the inoculum potential and percentage of infected plants were 225 cfu/g and 93, respectively. No cortical decay was noted after June 6 in either field. Yields were similar in both fields.
  • Effect of Harvest Date on Aflatoxin Contamination in the Yuma Valley

    Cotty, P. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Experiments were performed at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center to determine how timely harvest of cotton may affect aflatoxin contamination of cottonseed As the cotton was held in the field between the final irrigation and harvest, the quantity of aflataxin in the crop increased. Significant reductions in aflatoxin contents of seed were realized by harvesting in early September.
  • Response of Texas Root Rot to a Soil Sterilant the Second Year After Application in Marana, 1989

    Thacker, G. W.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990)
    Two years after sterilizing a sandy loam soil in Marana, we measured significant yield responses of short staple cotton. The yield response was significant in the first year as well, but was not enough to pay the cost of sterilization. This second year of yield response made the treatment economically feasible.

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