ABOUT THE COLLECTION

The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.

This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.

The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.

Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.

Other commodity-based agricultural research reports available in the UA Campus Repository include:
Cotton Reports | Citrus Reports | Sugarbeet Reports | Turfgrass Reports | Vegetable Reports


QUESTIONS?

Mike Ottman is the current editor of the Forage and Grain Reports. Contact CALS Publications at pubs@cals.arizona.edu, or visit the CALS Publications website.


Contents for Forage & Grain Report 2010

Recent Submissions

  • Response of Wheat and Barley Varieties to Phosphorus Fertilizer, 2010

    Ottman, M. J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Phosphorus fertilizer represents a significant portion of the cost of producing small grains. Some evidence exists that there are differences in the ability of small grain varieties to take phosphorus up from the soil and utilize this nutrient in the grain. The objective of this study is to determine if barley and wheat varieties grown in Arizona differ in their response to phosphorus fertilizer. A study was conducted for the second year at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing the response of 7 barley and 14 wheat (12 durum wheat and 2 bread wheat) varieties to 2 phosphorus rates (0 and 100 lbs P₂O₅/acre). The grain yield increase due to phosphorus application averaged across varieties in 2010 was 170 lbs/acre for barley (not statistically significant) and 545 lbs/acre for wheat. The grain yield increase averaged across varieties and years was 331 lbs/acre for barley and 577 lbs/acre for wheat. The barley and wheat varieties did not differ in their grain yield increase due to phosphorus fertilizer in 2010. However, based on 2 years of results, we were able to detect differences among wheat but not barley varieties in their response to P fertilizer. The yield response to P fertilizer (100 lbs P₂O₅/acre) among durum wheat varieties varied from 331 lbs/acre for Alamo to 1063 lbs/acre for Orita. Yecora rojo, a bread wheat, did not respond to P fertilizer.
  • Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Maricopa, Coolidge and Yuma, 2010

    Ottman, M. J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials conducted by the University of Arizona can be found online at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1265.pdf.
  • Silage Corn Variety Trial in Central Arizona

    Wang, Guangyao (Sam); Taylor, Erin L.; Roth, Robert L.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Information on silage corn yield and quality can help silage growers and users choose varieties that best fit their needs. We conducted a silage corn variety trial using 16 varieties that are commonly grown in the region. Variety RX940RR-2 produced the highest silage yield with an average of 28.2 ton/A and the variety 28V71 had the highest crude protein content (7.45%) among the varieties. Varieties that produced higher yield, higher crude protein, and lower NDF than the average of the sixteen varieties were 28V71, DKC67-88, and 818VT3.
  • Durum wheat yield prediction at flowering stage for late N management

    Wang, Guangyao (Sam); Gutierrez, Mario; Ottman, Michael J.; Thorp, Kelly; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Managing late N application effectively in durum wheat is important to reach desirable protein content. Yield prediction at anathesis is needed to estimate N requirement for the crop and N application rate. In this project, we use canopy reflectance and image processing, measured at anthesis, to estimate yield at harvest. Our results of the growing season 2009-2010 suggested that the canopy reflectance index ‘NWI-4’ and the spike pixel size obtained from image processing at anthesis are potential approaches to predict durum wheat yield at harvest. The final goal of this research is to find a simple and rapid method to manage late N fertilizer to reach desirable grain protein content.
  • Development of Forage Sorghum Tissue Testing for Efficient Fertilization, 2009

    Ottman, Michael J.; Walworth, James; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    A nitrogen fertilizer study was conducted in order to develop tissue testing guidelines for fertilizer application to forage sorghum. The study was conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural center on a sandy clay loam soil irrigated using surface flood methods. Forage sorghum was planted on 8 July 09 and fertilized with eight N rates varying from 0 to 350 lbs N/acre in 50 lb N/acre increments. The plants were sampled six times during the growing season and the lower stem, most recently developed leaf, and whole plant were analyzed for nitrogen content. Maximum yield at final harvest was obtained at 150 lbs N/acre and plant growth was highly affected by N rate. Before the initiation of rapid growth, the relationship between plant growth and N content in the various tissues was weak (R2 < 0.20), but was very strong (R2>0.50) from the initiation of rapid growth through the pre-boot stage at the time when post-plant nitrogen fertilizer application may be considered. Stem nitrate was most strongly related to yield for the tissues tested, but the relationships between plant growth and total N in the newest leaf and whole plant were also very strong. Preliminary tissue testing guidelines are suggested for nitrate in the stem tissue. The lower stem, newest leaf, and whole plant are all potential candidates for development of tissue testing guidelines for forage sorghum.
  • Water Use Efficiency of Forage Sorghum Grown with Sub-optimal Irrigation, 2009

    Ottman, Michael J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    A forage sorghum irrigation study was conducted at Maricopa, AZ to determine water use and if sub-optimal irrigation increases water use efficiency and profitability. Sorghum was planted on July 10 with a row spacing of 40 inches and irrigated three times with a total of 8.7 inches of water to establish the crop. Variable amounts of irrigation water were applied commencing on Aug 12 based on 25, 50, 75, and 100% of estimated crop water use (evapotranspiration, ET). The plots were 53.3 ft wide (16 rows) and 40 ft long. ET was estimated from soil water measurements using a neutron probe. The total amount of water applied was 15.5, 19.8, 23.7, and 27.8 inches for the 25, 50, 75, and 100% ET treatments, respectively. The forage was harvested on Oct 28 near the soft dough stage. Forage yields adjusted to 70% moisture were 11.3, 16.4, 21.5, and 23.1 tons/acre for the 25, 50, 75, and 100% ET treatments, respectively. Yield produced per inch of water used by the crop (WUEET, water use efficiency of water used in ET) increased with water application. Yield produced per inch of water applied to the crop (WUEirr, water use efficiency of irrigation water applied plus rainfall) also increased with water application, but then decreased from the 75 to 100% ET treatments. Nevertheless, sub-optimal irrigation strategies are not economical using the results from this study assuming a water cost of $45 per acre-foot and a sorghum silage value of $20 per ton. For sub-optimal irrigation strategies to be economical, water costs would have to increase, sorghum silage value would have to decrease, or the differences in the irrigation efficiencies of the strategies being compared would have to be greater than measured in the present study.
  • Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Maricopa and Yuma, 2009

    Ottman, Michael J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials conducted by the University of Arizona can be found online at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1265.pdf.
  • Response of wheat and barley varieties to phosphorus fertilizer, 2009

    Ottman, Michael J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Phosphorus fertilizer represents a significant portion of the cost of producing small grains. Some evidence exists that there are differences in the ability of small grain varieties to take phosphorus up from the soil and utilize this nutrient in the grain. The objective of this study is to determine if barley and wheat varieties grown in Arizona differ in their response to phosphorus fertilizer. A study was initiated at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing the response of 7 barley and 13 wheat (12 durum wheat and 1 bread wheat) varieties to 2 phosphorus rates (0 and 100 lbs P2O5/acre). The grain yield increase due to phosphorus application averaged across varieties was 474 lbs/acre for barley and 613 lbs/acre for wheat. The barley varieties differed in their grain yield increase due to phosphorus fertilizer and the greatest increase for the commercial varieties tested was 906 lbs and the smallest increase was 245 lbs. We have no statistical evidence that wheat varieties differed in their response to phosphorus fertilizer. The lack of response to phosphorus fertilizer for a particular variety may save production costs if the fertilizer is not applied, but a significant response to phosphorus fertilizer may pay for the fertilizer cost and increase profits. In this study, the higher yielding varieties tended to have a greater response to phosphorus fertilizer, particularly for the barley. This test will be repeated in 2010 to see if the results obtained this year can be duplicated.
  • Suboptimal Irrigation Strategies for Alfalfa in the Lower Colorado Region, 2009

    Ottman, Michael J.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-09)
    Alfalfa has the highest water requirement of any crop grown in Arizona, and any strategies that conserve water growing this crop could have a large impact on water availability in the state. The purpose of this study is to determine yield and profitability of sub-optimal irrigation strategies in alfalfa. An irrigation study was conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center on a sandy clay loam soil. The following irrigation treatments are included in this study: 1) One irrigation per cutting, 2) Two irrigations per cutting, 3) Summer (August) irrigation termination, 4) Winter (December, January, February) irrigation termination, and 5) Summer and Winter irrigation termination. The Winter irrigation termination treatments were initiated in December 2009 and data is not available yet for these treatments. The amount of water applied from January through November 2009 was 69.7 inches (one irrigation per cut), 80.5 inches (two irrigations per cut), and 78.6 (Summer irrigation termination). The annual hay yields were 12.5 tons/acre (one irrigation per cut), 13.7 tons/acre (two irrigations per cut), and 12.9 tons/acre (Summer irrigation termination). Sub-optimal irrigation increased the forage quality by decreasing fiber (ADF and NDF) and increasing protein content. Sub-optimal irrigation did not reduce stand density. The water use efficiency of applied water (plus rainfall) was not affected by irrigation treatment.