ABOUT THE COLLECTION

Arizona Cooperative Extension is an outreach arm of The University of Arizona and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS). The repository collection includes current and historical Extension publications on these topics: Animal Systems; Consumer Education; Farm Management and Safety; Food Safety; Nutrition and Health; Gardening/Home Horticulture; Insects and Pest Management; Marketing and Retailing; Natural Resources and Environment; Plant Diseases; Plant Production/Crops, Water, and Youth and Family. Current publications are also available from the CALS Publications and Videos website.


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Contact College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Publications at pubs@cals.arizona.edu.

Recent Submissions

  • Wheat and barley varieties for Arizona, 2017

    Ottman, Michael J (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-10)
    Grain yield, test weight, and other characteristics of barley, durum, and wheat varieties are provided in this publication. Revised 2017, Previous version10/2016. Previous version 10/2015.
  • A Summary of Livestock Grazing Systems Used on Rangelands in the Western United States and Canada

    Howery, Larry D.; Sprinkle, James E.; Bowns, James E. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
    The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the major grazing systems that have been used on rangelands in the western U. S. and Canada, to summarize the conditions under which they may be applicable, and to highlight examples from the southwestern U. S. when relevant. Revised 12/2014. Originally published 09/2000.
  • Using Repeat Color Photography as a Tool to Monitor Rangelands

    Howery, Larry D.; Sundt, Peter C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
    This article provides an introduction to repeat color photography and explains how it can be used as an important part of a comprehensive rangeland monitoring program. Reviewed 12/2014. Originally published 05/1998.
  • Growing Grain Sorghum in Arizona

    Ottman, Michael J; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
    Production practices for grain sorghum are discussed including hybrid selection, planting date, seeding rate, row configuration, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, and harvesting. Grain sorghum (milo) is a warm season, annual grain crop. It is more resistant to salt, drought, and heat stress than most other crops. Nevertheless, highest yields are obtained when stresses are minimized. Revised 10/2016. Originally published 06/2009.
  • Laboratories Conducting Soil, Plant, Feed, or Water Testing

    Schalau, Jeff W.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-09)
    This publication lists laboratories that provide soil, plant, feed, and water testing within the state of Arizona. Revised September 2016.
  • Compost Tea 101: What Every Organic Gardener Should Know

    Joe, Valerisa; Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
    Growers of organic produce in the Southwestern United States face many challenges, including variation in water and temperature, and exposure to insects and disease. As a result, smallholder organic farmers are increasingly relying on soil additives such as compost tea that improve product quality, use less water, deter pests, and reduce reliance on chemical additives (Diver, 2002). But what exactly is compost tea? Do the benefits of using compost tea outweigh any concerns? For example, can it contain pathogens, and if so, do applicators have to worry about coming into contact with pathogens? This publication provides facts about making compost tea, and reviews both the benefits and potential disadvantages to help smallholder farmers to make educated decisions regarding the use of compost tea.
  • Row Spacing Effect on Forage Sorghum Yield and Quality at Maricopa, AZ, 2015

    Ottman, Michael J; Diaz, Duarte E; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-02)
    Forage sorghum yields have been should to increase with narrow row spacing of 20 inches or less. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of narrow row spacing on forage sorghum yield and quality in Arizona. Two row spacing (20 and 40 inch) and two forage sorghum hybrids (Great Scott and Silo 700D BMR) were evaluated in a study conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center in 2015. Row spacing had no effect on forage yield, moisture, plant height, or maturity even though light interception was greater for the closer row spacing. The only feed quality parameter affected by row spacing was lactic acid which increased with row spacing. Hybrid by row spacing interactions was detected for a few feed quality parameters. Decreasing forage sorghum row spacing from 40 to 20 inches does not appear to have an advantage based on the results of this study.
  • Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate Effect on Forage Sorghum Yield, Quality, and Tissue Nitrogen Concentrations at Maricopa, AZ, 2015

    Ottman, Michael J; Diaz, Duarte E; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-02)
    A nitrogen fertilizer study was conducted in order to determine the effect of N rates on forage sorghum yield and quality and to develop tissue testing guidelines for fertilizer application to forage sorghum. The study was conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural center on sandy clay loam soil irrigated using the flood method. Forage sorghum was fertilized with six N rates varying from 0 to 250 lb N/acre in 50 lb N/acre increments. The whole plant, lower stem, and most recently expanded leaf were sampled five times during the growing season and analyzed for N content in order to establish tissue N guidelines for fertilizer application. The plant part that was most sensitive to N fertilizer application and plant N status was lower stem. Leaf and plant N levels were not affected by fertilizer application. The stem nitrate and stem N tests were able to identify N deficient plants very early in the season, long before plant growth was affected by the N deficiency, unlike leaf and plant N. Forage yield at final harvest fitted to a quadratic function was maximized at the 250 lb N/acre N rate. However, the yield increase with any amount of fertilizer did not pay for the cost of the fertilizer and the most economical N rate for yield was no N fertilizer applied at all. In terms of milk per acre, the maximum was achieved at 150 lb N/acre, and the economic optimum in terms of milk was slightly less than this amount of fertilizer.
  • Irrigation Interval Effect on Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum at Maricopa, AZ, 2015

    Ottman, Michael J; Diaz, Duarte E; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-02)
    Sorghum has the advantage compared to corn in that it uses less water and fertilizer, but feeding quality of sorghum is usually less than corn. The purpose of this research is to compare the yield and quality of sorghum grown with differing frequency of irrigation water application. Forage sorghum was grown at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center with irrigation intervals of 1, 2, and 3-weeks corresponding to 76, 44, and 37 inches of applied water. Forage yield at 72% moisture was 20.6, 18.8, and 16.5 tons/acre for the 1-, 2-, and 3-week irrigation intervals, respectively. Forage quality in terms of milk per ton of forage was not affected by irrigation interval, but some differences were measured in certain components of feed quality. Forage yield profit was maximized at the 2-week irrigation interval due since the increased water cost of the 1-week interval was not compensated by the yield increase at this irrigation frequency.
  • Forage Sorghum Hybrid Yield and Quality at Maricopa, AZ, 2015

    Ottman, Michael J; Diaz, Duarte E; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-02)
    Forage sorghum is commonly grown in Arizona for silage for dairy cattle and is valued for its lower nitrogen fertilizer and water requirements compared to corn. Five forage sorghum hybrids were evaluated in a study conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 2015. The hybrids tested did not differ in yield or overall feeding quality (TDN, total digestible nutrients) although some differences in heading, plant height, moisture content, and some specific quality parameters were detected.
  • Effect of Amount of Irrigation Water Applied on Forage Sorghum Yield and Quality at Maricopa, AZ, 2015

    Ottman, Michael J; Diaz, Duarte E; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-02)
    Irrigation water is a major input into production of a forage crop. The purpose of this research is to compare the yield and quality of forage sorghum grown with differing amounts of irrigation water. A linear move sprinkler system was used to apply 11 water application amounts from 23.79 to 35.52 inches over the season. Forage yield peaked at a water application amount of around 32.60 inches according to a quadratic function of yield vs water applied. Increasing irrigation amount decreased forage quality by increasing fiber components. Profit was maximized at 30.20 to 32.60 inches of applied water, which is slightly less than that for maximum yield.
  • Potential Yield Increase by Grafting for Watermelon Production in Arizona

    Kroggel, Mark; Kubota, Chieri (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-01)
    Grafting cucurbits onto rootstocks resistant to diseases and abiotic stresses can be a methodto overcome limited availability of effective pre-plant fumigants or land to rotate and to allowearlier planting. Commonly used rootstocks for cucurbits have resistance to Fusarium (race1&2) as well as cold tolerance, among other favorable traits like increased vigor of the scion. Grafting of cucurbits was developed in Asia primarily to allow production without rotation, because arable land is so limited. In the US, crop rotation schedules for seedless watermelon can be 3 years or longer reducing the amount of watermelon a grower can produce in a season. We have been growing grafted and non-grafted seedless watermelon on the same field/plot for 4 years, with no fumigation or off-season rotation of other crops. During the last 2 years, we planted early (March 1) to determine if grafting could overcome low night temperatures in addition to disease pressures. Treatments included grafted and non-grafted plants, covering with frost protection and non-covered. The results of the last 2 years indicate that grafted plants yielded nearly twice as much as non-grafted plants, suggesting that grafting can be a promising technology for Arizona watermelon producers.
  • Winter Cereal Forage Variety Evaluation at Maricopa, 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Winter cereals such as barley, oats, triticale, and wheat are commonly grown as forage for the dairy industry. The purpose of this study is to generate information on yield potential of various winter cereal forage varieties. A trial testing the yield potential of eleven winter cereal forage entries including barley, oat, triticale, and wheat varieties was established at the Maricopa Ag Center on October 16, 2015. Forage yields were obtained at cuttings on December 10, February 29, and April 18. The highest yielding entry at the first cutting was Stockford barley. At the second and third cuttings, the highest yielding entry was Summit 515 wheat. Summit 515 wheat was also the highest yielding entry averaged over all cuttings. As a group, the wheat entries were higher yielding that the other winter cereals except at the first cutting where the barleys were higher yielding.
  • Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Maricopa, 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials conducted by the University of Arizona can be found online at https://extension.arizona.edu/sites/extension.arizona.edu/files/pubs/az1265-2015.pdf.
  • Late Season N Application Method Effect on Grain Protein, 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Nitrogen fertilizer is normally applied later in the season around flowering time to boost grain protein content. The purpose of this study is to determine if the grain protein boost provided by late N application is affected by method of application. A trial testing late season N application methods was conducted at the Maricopa Ag Center in the 2016 growing season. The crop was grown 211 lb N/acre in split applications until flowering when 35 lb N/acre was applied as UAN32 in the irrigation water (fertigation), as low biuret urea in a foliar application, or as urea granules compared to no N application at all at flowering. In this study, we were not able to detect a difference in grain protein or any other variable measured due to the late N application method. We did measure a 0.4% increase in grain protein regardless of late season N application method compared to the control with no late N applied.
  • Evaluation of Palisade as a Plant Growth Regulator in Durum, 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Lodging has historically been a problem in small grain production. Palisade is a relatively new plant growth regulator that has shown some promise in reducing lodging. The effect of Palisade on height and lodging of durum, and subsequent yield was tested in a study at the Maricopa Ag Center. Plant height was not affected by Palisade since the chemical was applied at boot, one stage past the recommended window where the plant was near maximum height. Lodging was reduced from 83 to 61% and 28 to 8% under the high and medium input growing conditions, respectively. Grain yield was increased from 4481 to 6152 lb/acre and 5600 to 7330 lb/acre under high and medium input growing conditions, respectively. Palisade is effective in reducing but not eliminating lodging, and can have a large impact on yield as in this study.
  • Clipping small grains to increase subsequent grain yield

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Wheat is commonly grown as a dual purpose crop especially in the Southern Great Plains where the forage is grazed then allowed to mature into a grain crop. In Arizona, clipping a crop planted in October may increase tillering and grain yield. A trial was conducted at the Maricopa Ag Center where various small grain varieties were planted on October 12, 2015, cut for forage on January 10, 2016, and allowed to go to grain and compared with the same varieties planted on December 3, 2016 and not cut for forage. No differences in grain yield due to planting date and clipping were detected. However, the October 12 planting with clipping had larger kernels, greater grain protein, and higher stem density. The income from the sale of the forage was $99/acre based a yield of 2639 lb/acre and a forage value of $75/ton. The added cost per acre to produce this forage included $29 for water (6.27 inches of water at $55/acre-ft) plus $34 for fertilizer (50 lb N/acre of urea at $433/ton). Therefore, even though grain yield was not increased by planting early and clipping, a net increase in revenue of $36/acre was realized from the sale of the forage.
  • Can Yield of Late-planted Small Grains be Compensated by Water and Nitrogen Rates, 2016?

    Ottman, Michael J; Sheedy, Michael D; Ward, Richard W (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
    Wheat and barley are often planted later than optimum due to the timing of the previous crop or to reduce the risk of frost damage. It may be possible to partially compensate for lower yield potential of late plantings by increasing water and nitrogen rates beyond what would have an effect at more optimal plantings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of nitrogen and water rates on late planted wheat and barley. A trial testing water and nitrogen rates for small grains planted late and at the optimal time was established at the Maricopa Ag Center. The experimental design was a split-split plot with main plots as input levels of water and nitrogen (low, medium, and high), subplots as varieties (Tiburon durum and Chico barley), sub-subplots as planting dates (15 December 2015 and 1 February 2016, and 3 replications. In this study, higher levels on inputs of water and nitrogen did not increase yield at later planting dates as we hypothesized. In fact, the highest yields were obtained at medium inputs of water and nitrogen regardless of planting date. The yields of the later planting date were not depressed as we expected due to unusually mild temperatures later in the spring which favored a later planting date this season.
  • Wheat and barley varieties for Arizona, 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
    Grain yield, test weight, and other characteristics of barley, durum, and wheat varieties are provided in this publication.Revised 10/2016. Previous version 10/2015.
  • Nondormant alfalfa varieties for Arizona 2016

    Ottman, Michael J; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
    Alfalfa varieties differ in fall dormancy, defined as growth during the fall. Nondormant alfalfa varieties are usually planted in mild winter areas for their ability to grow in the late fall, winter, and early spring. Select alfalfa varieties that have resistance to potential pest problems. Alfalfa varieties are available that have salt tolerance or are Roundup Ready. Ratings are provided in this publication. Many of the varieties listed in this publication have been tested for yield and final stand by the University of Arizona in small plot trials. Revised 10/2016. Most recent version 09/2015

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