• Cattle in the Garden: An Environmental and Archaeological History of Ranching at Rancho Refugio - Wilder Ranch

      Curry, Benjamin Asher Flammang (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation addresses the ecological changes that occurred in 19th century California due to Spanish Colonial and Mexican Period cattle ranching. Grasslands in particular are often depicted as having been rapidly invaded by exotic Old World grasses. In addition, cattle ranching and ecological change are thought to be a factor in the decision making of Native Californians to enter the Spanish missions. Wilder Ranch California State Park, formerly known as Rancho Refugio, is used as a case study to explore these issues. Originally established as a rancho of Mission Santa Cruz, Wilder Ranch remained an operating ranch until the 1970s, and thus provides an excellent venue to explore the long- term effects of cattle ranching. To analyze the rate and intensity of grassland change at Wilder Ranch, a combination of zooarchaeological analysis, archaeobotanical analysis, historical records, and agent based modeling is used. These lines of evidence together indicate that grasslands were altered by exotic grasses, but not at the rate and intensity that is often suggested. In addition, analysis of baptismal records from nearby Mission Santa Cruz indicate that most local Native Californians had joined the mission before cattle herds had grown much in size, and before extensive ecological change is expected to have occurred. Instead, a combination of drought and social network collapse seem more influential in the decision of local Native Californians to join the mission.
    • Quasi-Optical Spherical Balloon Telescopes

      O'Dougherty, Stefan (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Astronomy constantly pushes the limits of technology in order to decipher the workings of the Universe. There is a constant need for higher resolution observations across a wide range of wavelengths, at preferably a minimal cost. The terahertz regime (lambda=100 um to lambda=1000 um) covers a region of the electromagnetic spectrum that is blocked by Earth's atmosphere, which limits observations to high altitude plane and balloon telescopes and space telescopes. These current options limit the resolution achievable due to the size of telescopes that can be launched. This dissertation investigates a new approach, the Large Balloon Reflector (LBR), where a 20 meter diameter spherical balloon can be inflated and used as a 10 meter telescope inside a larger carrier balloon. Detailed in this dissertation are design considerations for the terahertz regime and a series of scaled versions of this balloon concept where I work to develop on-axis spherical corrector designs. Chapters 1 through 6 focus on the LBR designs and their variants, including investigations for a 3 meter rooftop proof of concept model, a 5 meter test flight model, and the final 20 meter LBR. The successful modeling and proof of concepts from the LBR studies then prompted an investigation into a Terahertz Space Telescope (TST), a proposed 20 meter inflatable telescope adapted from the LBR technology. Starting with Chapter7, this dissertation explores the application of using 1 meter diameter inflatable balloons as rapidly deployable communications satellites from standard CubeSats. The concept, design and test results of an electronically steerable line feed antenna array are presented which allows for instantaneous, non mechanical pointing of a 10 GHz signal within a 500 km ground footprint. Alternative uses of the 1 meter inflatable balloon CubeSat are also discussed, such as low cost astronomical galactic plane surveys.
    • A Re-Os Geochronology and Multi Stable Isotope (C, N, S, Sr, Pb) Systematics of Source Rocks and Crude Oils from the Sonda de Campeche Petroleum System, Mexico

      Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrian (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      In this work, I present a multi-isotopic study (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, strontium and lead) and Re-Os geochronology in rocks and crude oils of the Sonda de Campeche Petroleum System (SCPS). Since crude oils are complicated chemical systems easily disturbed, the Re-Os isotopic system could be affected if secondary processes perturb crude oils. Therefore, the multi stable isotopic study allows the identification of the presence and grade of these secondary processes in crude oils. The δ13C values of crude oils from the SCPS distinguish between: 1) crude oils with the fingerprint of source rocks of hydrocarbons (-28.3 to -26.7 ‰), and 2) crude oils with the fingerprint of the reservoir rocks (-25.5 to -24.9 ‰). Similarly, the δ15N values reveal that crude oils, during migration or trapping processes mimic the isotopic composition of the reservoir rocks of the Ek-Balam Formation. Furthermore, the δ34S values of crude oils from the SCPS (-8.0 to -2.5 ‰) show an absence of a thermal sulfate reduction (TSR) signature, which likely means that the use of Re-Os systematics in crude oils and rocks in the SCPS is appropriate. Strontium and lead measurements show crude oils have an isotopic composition different from rocks from the Edzna Formation but similar to rocks of the Akimpech and Ek-Balam formations, indicating that crude oils received Sr and Pb from the trapping rocks during migration or trapping processes, producing a isotopic mixing trend with rocks of these formations. Specifically, the lead isotope composition allows the identification of a source of lead never recorded before, the Guichicovi Complex. The isotopic data suggest that this Grenville Complex has been feeding with detrital material to the sedimentary rocks from Bacab, Ek-Balam and Akimpech formations in the SCPS, and in consequence contributing to the final isotopic composition of crude oils as well. Re-Os geochronology of rocks from the Edzna and Akimpech formations (152 ± 4 Ma; and 158.6 ± 5.5 Ma, respectively) provides precise ages of deposition that coincide with the ages proposed in previous studies based on the fossil record. Re-Os geochronology in crude oils yield ages with low uncertainty and moderate MSWD values, reflecting a rapid formation and migration process that occurred during evolution of the SCPS. The age of crude oils (28.3 ± 5.5 Ma) broadly agrees with petroleum generation models proposed by PEMEX.
    • The Meckhart Confession: Moderate Religion in an Age of Militancy

      Hough, Adam Glen (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      This dissertation explores the formation and evolution of religious identities in the latter half of the sixteenth century, particularly as they developed in the bi-confessional imperial free city of Augsburg. Taking as its primary focus the city’s evangelical ministers, it argues that the agency of these local clerics—in both promoting and resisting the social, political, and cultural effects of confessionalization—has been underappreciated. By exploring manuscript city chronicles, interrogation transcripts, contemporary public histories, and, above all, these clerics’ own written works, this dissertation will shed light on the systemic “adversarialism” of early modern confessional identities and ideologies, as well as on those local clergy who recognized the inherent danger of allowing their society to by riven by two competing identities. The proponents of “moderation” referenced in the title of this work were those clerics who tried to keep their religion nominally ambiguous, eschewing polarizing confessional identities. In contrast, the “militants” were those who reduced complex theological and liturgical systems to the level of identity-politics. They took tragedies like war, famine, and plague, and redirected blame for these tribulations on rhetorically-constructed enemies of the faith. Principally, I have elected to focus this analysis on a family of preachers whose service to the city over three generations spans a period of nearly six decades (1528-1586)—the Meckharts. Insofar as my sources allow, I use these three men—Johann, Georg, and Johann Baptist—to provide a narrative anchor for my analysis of developments within the city respecting religious culture, community, and identity. Within this one family, we see clearly the push and pull of conflict and concord as both communities and individuals struggled to reconcile the Reformation with the emergence of confessions. In short, I argue that the real drama of confessionalization was not simply that which played out between princes and theologians, or even, for that matter, between religions; rather, it lay in the daily struggle of clerics in the proverbial trenches of their ministry, who were increasingly pressured to choose for themselves and for their congregations between doctrinal purity and civil peace.
    • The Estimation of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Organic Compounds

      Al-Antary, Doaa Tawfiq (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Thermodynamic relationships are used to predict several physicochemical properties of organic compounds. As described in chapter one, the UPPER model (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) has been used to predict nine essential physicochemical properties of pure compounds. It was developed almost 25 years ago and has been validated by the Yalkowsky group for almost 2000 aliphatic, aromatic, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. UPPER is based on a group of additive and nonadditive descriptors along with a series of well-accepted thermodynamic relationships. In this model, the two-dimensional chemical structure is the only input needed. Chapter (1) extends the applicability of UPPER to hydrogen bonding and non-hydrogen bonding aromatic compounds with several functional groups such as alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, carbonate, carbamate, amine, amide, nitrile as well as aceto, and nitro compounds. The total data set includes almost 3000 compounds. Aside from the enthalpies and entropies of melting and boiling, no training set is used for the calculation of the properties. The results show that UPPER enables a reasonable estimation of all the considered properties. Chapter (2) uses modification of the van't Hoff equation to predict the solubility of organic compounds in dry octanol as explained in chapter two. The equation represents a linear relationship between the logarithm of the solubility of a solute in octanol to its melting temperature. More than 620 experimentally measured octanol solubilities, collected from the literature, are used to validate the equation without using any regression or fitting. The average absolute error of the prediction is 0.66 log units. Chapter (3) compares the use of a statistic based model for the prediction of aqueous solubility to the existing general solubility equation (GSE).
    • Design and Synthesis of Triazabutadiene-based Fluorogenic Probes for Tyrosine Specific Labeling of Proteins

      Shadmehr, Mehrdad (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Chemical labeling is an important tool for understanding protein structure and function. Biological research often requires the use of molecular labels that are covalently attached to facilitate detection or purification of the labeled protein and its binding partners. Although the number of probes have been developed for labeling of specific residues of proteins is substantial, there is still a need for new reagents with better reactivity, and selectivity. Moreover, these chemical probes should be able to label the protein of interest under mild biologically relevant conditions. Aryl diazonium salts have been utilized for selective modification of tyrosine residues. However, most diazonium compounds need to be generated in situ under strongly acidic conditions due to their instability1. Our group has previously shown that triazabutadienes can be used as precursors that can generate diazonium under mild acidification2 or photo-irradiation3. Current reported systems for bioconjugation of tyrosine require an additional step for fluorescent labeling4. To address this issue and reduce background fluorescence that is associated with fluorescent labeling, coumarin triazabutadiene-based fluorogenic probes were synthesized and tested for tyrosine specific labeling of proteins under mild acidic condition or photo-irradiation. Furthermore, a coumarin triazabutadiene-based cross-linker was synthesized with an azide functionality that can be used to attached the coumarin triazabutadiene warhead onto the surface of a protein. Upon the activation of the triazabutadiene group, by light or lowering the pH, this system can generate a coumarin diazonium salt on the surface of the protein. Such a system can find application in the study of protein-protein interactions and virus-protein interactions. A cyclooctyne triazabutadiene was synthesized to attach a cyclooctyne group on the tyrosine residues of proteins in biologically relevant pH, and 3-azido 7-hydroxy coumarin was made as a fluorogenic partner of the cyclooctyne triazabutadiene. It was demonstrated that this system can label tyrosine residue followed by a copper-free click reaction with the azido coumarin fluorophore. This system has been tested on model proteins and can be consider as one the first fluorogenic triazabutadiene systems that can be utilized for labeling of tyrosine under mild conditions. In conclusion, this dissertation demonstrates progress in developing fluorescent and fluorogenic triazabutadienes systems for labeling of tyrosine residues of proteins as well as fluorophore triazabutadiene cross-linker that can be used for studying protein-protein interaction, and virus-protein interactions. These systems offer a convenient tool to those wishing to study proteins, protein-protein interactions, and virus-protein interactions.
    • Inhalational Delivery of a JAK3 Inhibitor for the Novel Treatment of Asthma and the Investigation of Pharmaceutical Salts in HFA Propellant Systems

      Younis, Usir (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Asthma is a significant lung disease involving chronic inflammation and remodeling of the airways, resulting in reduced quality of life for those who suffer from the condition. Current therapeutic guidelines suggest the use of inhaled corticosteroids for long-term anti-inflammatory relief to manage moderate to severe chronic asthma; however, inhaled corticosteroids fail to provide prophylactic or reversal treatment of damaged airways incurred by chronic asthma as well as exhibiting adverse side effects (skeletal complications, diabetes, and weight gain).Therefore, there is a need for a new type of drug therapy to address these gaps in the treatment of chronic asthma. There is growing interest aimed towards the inhibition of the Janus Kinase and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway for the treatment of asthma. Despite the promising opportunity to investigate this new pathway towards this clinical application, no published work is available using an established and characterized JAK 1/3 inhibitor for the treatment of chronic asthma delivered via inhalation. This work investigated tofacitinib citrate, a selective JAK 3 inhibitor, and its potential to be delivered locally to the lungs for the treatment of chronic asthma. Several preformulation studies were conducted to determine the basic physical and chemical properties of the compound and its free base, tofacitinib, for proper inhalational formulation development. The drug was delivered to BALB/c mice challenged with house dust mite (HDM) allergen via nebulization utilizing a nose-only chamber. After a three week dosing schedule, mice treated with tofacitinib citrate exhibited an increase in monocyte cell numbers with a simultaneous decrease in eosinophil cell count, gathered from BAL fluid. Further, the experimental groups treated with tofacitinib citrate had a decrease in total protein concentrations in comparison to the experimental groups that were only challenged with HDM or were both exposed to HDM and vehicle. These findings demonstrated that the proper formulation was developed for nebulized delivery of tofacitinib citrate, and that the compound was capable of reducing total protein concentrations and eosinophil cell recruitment, both recognized as biomarkers for an asthmatic response. Although significant work is still needed to be done, these data hold promise for the potential of a locally delivered JAK 3 inhibitor as a treatment for chronic asthma. Further, the solubility of tofacitinib citrate and five other pharmaceutical salts were determined in HFA 134a, HFA 227, and DFP with varying cosolvent content (0-20% v/v ethanol). The experimental solubilities of the free acid and base compounds were larger than the solubilities of their respective salts in all three systems for tofacitinib, albuterol, and salicylic acid. Warfarin, phenytoin, and ciprofloxacin had similar solubilities with their respective salt forms. Solubilities also increased with increasing cosolvent concentration for all compounds investigated. The model propellant, DFP, provided a slightly stronger correlation of solubility values with HFA 134a in comparison to HFA 227. The observed solubility values were also compared to calculated values obtained from the ideal solubility model, where it was determined that the observed solubility was indeed also dependent on its surrounding solvent interactions and not solely on its ideal solubility (melting point). While some physical changes were observed for the pharmaceutical salts in HFA 134a and 227, more quantitative studies are needed for a larger database of compounds to better understand the factors that contribute to the solubility of pharmaceutical salts (and their correlation to DFP), in HFA-based systems. This information could potentially contribute to a predictive model, saving time and money during the process of pMDI formulation development.
    • Robust Intelligent Agents for Wireless Communications: Design and Development of Metacognitive Radio Engines

      Asadi, Hamed (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Improving the efficiency of spectrum access and utilization under the umbrella of cognitive radio (CR) is one of the most crucial research areas for nearly two decades. The results have been algorithms called cognitive radio engines which use machine learning (ML) to learn and adapt the communication's link based on the operating scenarios. While a number of algorithms for cognitive engine design have been identified, it is widely understood that significant room remains to grow the capabilities of the cognitive engines, and substantially better spectrum utilization and higher throughput can be achieved if cognitive engines are improved. This requires working through some difficult challenges and takes an innovative look at the problem. A tenet of the existing cognitive engine designs is that they are usually designed around one primary ML algorithm or framework. In this dissertation, we discover that it is entirely possible for an algorithm to perform better in one operating scenario (combination of channel conditions, available energy, and operational objectives such as max throughput, and max energy efficiency) while performing less effectively in other operating scenarios. This arises due to the unique behavior of an individual ML algorithm regardless of its operating conditions. Therefore, there is no individual algorithm or parameter sets that have superiority in performance over all other algorithms or parameter sets in all operating scenarios. Using the same algorithm at all times may present a performance that is acceptable, yet may not be the best possible performance under all operating scenarios we are faced with over time. Ideally, the system should be able to adapt its behavior by switching between various ML algorithms or adjusting the operating ML algorithm for the prevailing operating conditions and goal. In this dissertation, we introduce a novel architecture for cognitive radio engines, with the goal of better cognitive engines for improved link adaptation in order to enhance spectrum utilization. This architecture is capable of meta-reasoning and metacognition and the algorithms developed based on this architecture are called metacognitive engines (meta-CE). Meta-reasoning and metacognitive abilities provide for self-assessment, self-awareness, and inherent use and adaptation of multiple methods for link adaptation and utilization. In this work, we provide four different implementation instances of the proposed meta-CE architecture. First, a meta-CE which is equipped with a classification algorithm to find the most appropriate individual cognitive engine algorithm for each operating scenario. The meta-CE switches between the individual cognitive engine algorithms to decrease the training period of the learning algorithms and not only find the most optimal communication configuration in the fastest possible time but also provide the acceptable performance during its training period. Second, we provide different knowledge indicators for estimating the experience level of cognitive engine algorithms. We introduce a meta-CE equipped with these knowledge indicators extracted from metacognitive knowledge component. This meta-CE adjusts the exploration factors of learning algorithms to gain higher performance and decrease training time. The third implementation of meta-CE is based on the robust training algorithm (RoTA) which switches and adjusts the individual cognitive engine algorithms to guarantee a minimum performance level during the training phase. This meta-CE is also equipped with forgetting factor to deal with non-stationary channel scenarios. The last implementation of meta-CE enables the individual cognitive engine algorithms to handle delayed feedback scenarios. We analyze the impact of delayed feedback on cognitive radio engines' performances in two cases of constant and varying delay. Then we propose two meta-CEs to address the delayed feedback problem in cognitive engine algorithms. Our experimental results show that the meta-CE approach, when utilized for a CRS engine performed about 20 percent better (total throughput) than the second best performing algorithm, because of its ability to learn about its own learning and adaptation. In effect, the meta-CE is able to deliver about 70% more data than the CE with the fixed exploration rate in the 1000 decision steps. Moreover, the knowledge indicator (KI) autocorrelation plots show that the proposed KIs can predict the performance of the CEs as early as 100 time steps in advance. In non-stationary environments, the proposed RoTA based meta-CE guarantees the minimum required performance of a CRS while it’s searching for the optimal communication configurations. The RoTA based meta-CE delivers at least about 45% more data than the other algorithms in non-stationary scenarios when the channel conditions are often fluctuating. Furthermore, in delayed feedback scenarios, our results show that the proposed meta-CE algorithms are able to mitigate the adverse impact of delay in low latency scenarios and relieve the effects in high latency situations. The proposed algorithms show a minimum of 15% improvement in their performance compared to the other available delayed feedback strategies in literature. We also empirically tested the algorithms introduced in this dissertation and verified the results therein by designing an over the air (OTA) radio setup. For our experiments, we used GNU Radio and LiquidDSP as free software development toolkits that provide signal processing blocks to implement software-defined radios and signal-processing systems such as modulation, pulse-shaping, frame detection, equalization, and others. We also used two USRP N200 with WBX daughterboards, one as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. In these experiments, we monitored the packet success rate (PSR), throughput, and total data transferred as our key performance indicators (KPI). Then, we tested different proposed meta-CE algorithms in this dissertation to verify the productivity of the proposed algorithms in an OTA real-time radio setup. We showed that the experiments’ outputs support our simulations results as well.
    • Formative Assessment: Documenting Motor Vehicle Crashes and Local Perceptions with the Hualapai Tribe to Inform Injury Prevention Recommendations

      Mahal, Zeenat (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Background: This research was designed to understand factors influencing Motor Vehicle Crashes (MVCs) on or near the Hualapai Tribe’s reservation in northwestern Arizona. The goal is to enable the Tribe to develop and implement a locally relevant MVC intervention program. The specific aims were to: i) compile and analyze 2010-2016 MVC data from Hualapai and federal sources to assess distributions of frequency, rates, high risk-locales, causes, days, times, age and sex of the drivers, in addition to assessing related conditions; ii) document local perceptions of environmental, social, and behavioral barriers to safe driving practices, and knowledge of MVC risk factors and existing tribal laws; and iii) provide evidence-based recommendations using the results from quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Approach/Methods: The research process applied a Community-Based Participatory Research approach and mixed methods using: a) secondary data analyses of records from six tribal programs and Indian Health Service (IHS), and b) qualitative analyses of data from two focus groups and field documents. Sensitivity analyses were conducted of IHS and Tribal Driving Under the Influence (DUI) data, using the 2010 U.S. Census as the denominator after adjusting for an undercount of up to 25%. Descriptive statistics, Fisher’s Exact Test, and linear and logistic regressions were used to examine significance. MVCs per 10 miles per year were estimated for State Route 66 and Diamond Bar Road/Grand Canyon West on or near the reservation due to higher numbers of crashes. Statistical process control charts, especially g-charts monitoring time between events, were plotted to examine the stability in the number of MVCs over time for each road. NVivo11Pro© was used to code and analyze the focus group data, guided by both inductive and deductive theories. Results: Driver’s seatbelt use in the Hualapai community increased from 2010 to 2012 (p < .0005), and reported DUIs decreased from 2010 to 2016 (p = .027). Similarly, car/booster seat use improved from 2014 to 2015 (p < .0005). Two hundred and fifty (N = 250) MVC-related injuries were registered at IHS facilities for Hualapai community members between 2006 and 2015. The highest rate, 22.4%, was observed in 15- to 24-year-olds, followed by 21.6% in 55- to 64-year-olds. For several combinations of numerators and denominators, sensitivity analysis of the IHS data shows a clear disparity between the Tribe’s MVC rate compared to the 2008 U.S. rate of 771.4 nonfatal injuries per 100,000 persons and the national goal for Healthy People 2020 (694.3 nonfatal injuries/100,000 persons). The major themes emerged from qualitative analyses of the focus groups were: i) unsafe traffic infrastructures, ii) DUI, iii) repeated DUI offenders driving on the reservation, and iv) a perception of lenient tribal traffic laws and enforcement on the reservation. Using study results, five Public Service Announcements were co-developed to inspire community-members to continue the trends noted from 2010-2016 and be aware of continued risks. Conclusions: MVCs are a multidimensional issue needing communitywide awareness of the range of risk factors. An intervention that addresses human and structural risks requires an alliance of tribal programs and external partners (e.g., IHS, university, federal, and state). Recommendations: Local recommendations include providing school- and institution-based education about alcohol/alcoholism and DUI consequences, and ongoing culturally and locally relevant communitywide education through the local newsletter and radio station.
    • Seismic Investigations Applied to Landscape Evolution and Tectonic Development: Valles Caldera, New Mexico and Guinea Plateau, West Africa

      Olyphant, Jared Russell (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Geophysical investigation of the subsurface through seismic refraction and reflection methods provides an efficient and non-invasive means towards addressing geologic problems across multiple scales. Both seismic techniques, in an active-source exploration setting, involve inducing acoustic waves into the subsurface and measuring their propagation velocities and amplitudes. These measurements have physically-based relationships with the properties of the underlying strata, thus allowing changes in the seismic measurements to be interpreted with respect to changes in the subsurface geology. Two applications of the seismic method are presented in this dissertation: (1) shallow seismic refraction acquisition and processing applied to the near-surface investigations of soil and regolith, which constitute the Critical Zone (CZ), beneath the upland hillslopes of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico; (2) interpretation of 2-D and 3-D marine seismic reflection data that image the upper 10-km of the crust beneath the Southern Guinea Plateau, offshore Guinea, West Africa. In both cases, the seismic data provide necessary constraints for the generation of accurate subsurface models that permit further geophysical modeling. The near-surface results, presented in Appendix A, provided a rich dataset of weathered thicknesses across hillslopes that supported an investigation of potential relationships between CZ geologic architecture and topographic attributes. Quantified relationships suggest that calibrated predictions based on the topography can provide first-order estimates of regolith thickness across upland landscapes. These results add to the ongoing CZ-science endeavor to understand proposed links between subsurface weathering processes and their surface expressions. In Appendix B, interpretations of high-resolution 3-D seismic data have illuminated deformational structures associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Southern Guinea Plateau. The interpretations were expanded onto regional 2-D seismic profiles, permitting a regional synthesis of the southern margin’s structural evolution. Additional tectonic subsidence and forward-gravity modeling highlight the influence of Jurassic rifting on the Southern Guinea Plateau prior to Early-Cretaceous rifting and separation, as well as crustal thickness estimates from the continental shelf out towards oceanic crust. Lastly, the Guinea-Demerara conjugate plateaus, and their associated deformations, were restored to 100 Ma, revealing an apparent upper-crustal asymmetry between the two margins. Appendix C presents two seismic-exploration methodologies based on 3-D seismic reflection data: (1) the calculation and interpretation of two co-rendered volumetric seismic attributes – most-positive curvature and semblance; (2) numerically modeling the tectonic subsidence of an entire 3-D seismic survey. Both techniques are used to address the inherent difficulty in interpreting the extent to which Jurassic rifting affected the Southern Guinea Plateau. Furthermore, the numerical model of subsidence provides a new exploration technique towards qualitatively and quantitatively assisting in the assessment of potential hydrocarbon-bearing basins.
    • Geocomputational Approaches to Improve Problem Solution in Spatial Optimization: A Case Study of the p-Median Problem

      Mu, Wangshu (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      The p-Median problem (PMP) is one of the most widely applied location problems in urban and regional planning to support spatial decision-making. As an NP-hard problem, the PMP remains challenging to solve optimally, especially for large-sized problems. This research focuses on developing geocomputational approaches to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of solving the PMP. This research also examines existing PMP methods applied to choropleth mapping and proposes a new approach to address issues associated with uncertainty. Chapter 2 introduces a new algorithm that solves the PMP more effectively. In this chapter, a method called the spatial-knowledge enhanced Teitz and Bart heuristic (STB) is proposed to improve the classic Teitz and Bart (TB) heuristic.. The STB heuristic prioritizes candidate facility sites to be examined in the solution set based on the spatial distribution of demand and candidate facility sites. Tests based on a range of PMPs demonstrate the effectiveness of the STB heuristic. Chapter 3 provides a high performance computing (HPC) based heuristic, Random Sampling and Spatial Voting (RSSV), to solve large PMPs. Instead of solving a large-sized PMP directly, RSSV solves multiple sub-PMPs with each sub-PMP containing a subset of facility and demand sites. Combining all the sub-PMP solutions, a spatial voting strategy is introduced to select candidate facility sites to construct a PMP for obtaining the final problem solution. The RSSV algorithm is well-suited to the parallel structure of the HPC platform. Tests with the BIRCH dataset show that RSSV provides high-quality solutions and reduces computing time significantly. Tests also demonstrate the dynamic scalability of the algorithm; it can start with a small amount of computing resources and scale up or down when the availability of computing resources changes. Chapter 4 provides a new classification scheme to draw choropleth maps when data contain uncertainty. Considering that units in the same class on a choropleth map are assigned the same color or pattern, the new approach assumes the existence of a representative value for each class. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based approach is developed to determine class breaks so that the overall within-class deviation is minimized while considering uncertainty. Different methods, including mixed integer programming, dynamic programming, and an interchange heuristic, are developed to solve the new classification problem. The proposed mapping approach is then applied to map two American Community Survey datasets. The effectiveness of the new approach is demonstrated, and the linkage of the approach with the PMP method and the Jenks Natural Breaks is discussed.
    • Sustainable, Robust, and Resilient Water Resources Planning and Management

      Hwang, Hwee (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Sustainable, robust, and resilient water resources planning and management (WRPM) has emerged as a major concern, not only for decision makers and water utilities but also for academic researchers. A water resources system is very complex since its enormous number and diverse components are connected and interrelated. To establish effective management and planning for the water resources system, decision makers and planners can disaggregate large water resources systems into multiple scales based on geographical boundaries and the management and planning goals. Arizona’s water resources system can be divided into basin, state, planning area, and local planning area scales. Each scale requires a different approach and models depending on the WRPM goals. This dissertation takes a comprehensive view of sustainable, robust, and resilient WRPM for multi-scale Arizona water resources systems (state, planning area, and local planning area scales). This dissertation is composed of three studies with four journal articles that address sustainable, robust, and resilient WRPM. First, for the state and planning area scale, a large food-energy-water system model is developed for Arizona using a system dynamic modeling approach. Using the model, effectiveness of potential alternatives including graywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, demand reduction, and groundwater importation that promise sustainable water use are evaluated. Second, at the regional planning area scale, impacts of various strategies on the robustness and resilience of regional water supply system (RWSS) during major component failure for a region in southwest Tucson, AZ are assessed. The strategies include (1) restricting water demand, (2) constructing pipelines as alternative water supply pathways, (3) building water tanks as backup water storages, and (4) maintaining the Central wellfield as a backup source. Finally, the impact of network topology within water distribution system (WDS)/water distribution network (WDN) on (1) the accuracy of the first-order second-moment (FOSM) approximation when it is employed as a nodal pressure head uncertainty estimation method and (2) WDN robustness and resiliency. To that end, a quantitative WDS classification scheme that classify a WDS based on its function and network topology are developed. Using the classification scheme, network topology within WDS is identified and used for the analyses.
    • Escritores Españoles En Hollywood Y Las Dobles Versiones (1930-1932)

      Pérez-Blanes, Joaquín (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Esta disertación examina la crisis que surge en la industria cinematográfica de Hollywood con el advenimiento del sonido a finales de la década de 1920. El añadido de la palabra hablada obligó a los principales estudios de Hollywood a adoptar diferentes estrategias de mercado para la producción y distribución de películas en otros idiomas además del inglés. A principios de la década de 1930, las versiones multilingües de films producidos en Hollywood comenzaron a abordar este tema filmando la misma película primero en inglés y luego, en el caso del mercado hispano, en español. El objetivo era hacer las dos versiones simultáneamente y exactamente de la misma manera. Para filmar estas "dobles versiones," como llegaron a ser conocidas, los estudios de Hollywood contrataron a varios escritores españoles y esta disertación aclara muchas de sus contribuciones. Durante años, las dobles versiones en español han sido consideradas como copias exactas de sus homólogas en inglés. Sin embargo, el argumento fundamental que subyace en esta disertación demuestra que una serie de aspectos en las versiones hispanas difieren de forma indiscutible de las películas correspondientes producidas en inglés.
    • The Border Enforcement "Funnel Effect": A Material Culture Approach to Border Security on the Arizona-Sonora Border, 2000-Present

      Soto, Gabriella (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Nearly two decades have passed since the strategic border security paradigm known as “prevention through deterrence” (PTD) took root in the landscape of Southern Arizona. The aim of PTD was to deter illicit migration by strategically amassing border security forces to funnel migrants into increasingly remote and treacherous territory where they would face increased risk. Indeed, risk was to be the prime factor of deterrence. Thousands of undocumented migrants died attempting to overcome those risks in an outcome known as the “funnel effect,” wherein migration patterns shifted to overcome bypass and overcome border security. When speaking about PTD taking root in southern Arizona, I mean that this geography is the locus of the funnel effect and has been since 2001. Southern Arizona represents the longest stretch of border walling in the United States and the highest concentrations of border security personnel and undocumented migration activity since the early 2000s. In this sense, this region is a useful point of focus for evaluating the outcomes and efficacy of the border security apparatus. Here, the PTD strategy has been physically tethered to the landscape as border security infrastructure has literally been dug into the ground. With the hundreds of border security infrastructure and wall projects have also come the hundreds of clandestine trails routed around them used by undocumented migrants, and hundreds of tons of left behind migrant survival materials like backpacks, water bottles, blankets, and rosaries. Over the years while border security has expanded, the evidence associated with migration has shifted in turn reflecting a dialectical engagement between the formal border security apparatus and the informal politics of migrants. While many scholars have studied either border security or the risks faced by migrants, few have looked at their mutual influence over time. This dissertation incorporated a multidisciplinary methodological approach, including ethnography, archival research, archaeology, and GIS technology. These methods allowed me to answer the following questions: What are the social and material effects of border enforcement policy on the ground? How have these changed over the 15 years of concentrated border enforcement in this area, both geographically and in terms of their volume and constitution? What are the stories, the experiences, and the tangible points on the landscape that mark these processes? I viewed the material signature of migration as a form of ruins both literally and metaphorically as they mark the scars of abandonment, loss, and failure. Following Walter Benjamin, I conceived of such ruins as an indictment of the political conditions that led to their formation. In the spirit of Benjamin, I also prioritized this form of marginalized material evidence. Questions of memory and materiality were also entwined with realities of absence and a search for fragmentary traces. I encountered this reality constantly in fieldwork, as when a place known to have been a major clandestine travel corridor for migration was often found completely cleared of all evidence of use. I also routinely walked past coordinates where migrant bodies were recovered, and where no evidence of that tragedy was left. A dialectical approach also highlighted how much more accessible and visible the actions related to the implementation of the United States border security were in relation to those of migrants. Further, the material evidence associated with migration was actively being removed, often as an environmental hazard. Thus, this project also came to encompass questions about the process of historical creation and heritage. Among those who live and work in the borderlands, this contemporary situation was already largely conceptualized in terms of its heritage potential. Will we remember this episode in history as we remember the Berlin Wall, or Japanese internment camps in the United States, as many of the border residents who participated in my project speculated? Certain public land managers along the border anticipated that their heritage future may well be as lands associated with the migration experience, circa the turn of the 21st century. It is acknowledged that this is a dark chapter of history. But, how does one curate history in the making? All of this inextricably links to issues of power. This is the power to decide what is culturally valuable or relevant, as well as the power to define historical narratives as they are made. Border security itself is about maintaining U.S. sovereignty, while defining the value of migrant lives and deaths as the border is secured. This is also a set of values that prioritizes border security over reform to the system that could facilitate labor migration. There is also a hierarchy to what survives between the monumental architecture of border security and the ephemeral tools and structures of clandestine migration. The latter are hidden and actively decaying while the former will stand the test of time. This dissertation analyzes the informal and the fragmentary side by side with the formal and monumental. What do decaying survival materials dropped by undocumented migrants, decaying migrant bodies in the wilderness, and hundreds of miles of clandestine smuggler trails in one of the most highly secured borderlands in one of the most powerful countries in the world say about power here? On a practical level, the accumulated evidence are read as an indictment of border security, revealing that the building of walls and surveillance structures have not stopped migration, though they have led to increasingly imperiled migrant journeys.
    • The Evolution and Comparative Genomics of the Reproductive Manipulator Cardinium hertigii

      Stouthamer, Corinne Marie (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Many insects and other arthropods have symbiotic microorganisms that may influence key facets of their biology. Cardinium hertigii is an intracellular bacterial symbiont, (phylum Bacteroidetes) of arthropods and nematodes. This versatile symbiont has been shown to cause three of four reproductive manipulations of their arthropod hosts known to be caused by symbionts: parthenogenesis induction (PI), where genetic males are converted into genetic females; feminization, where genetic males become functional females; and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), the symbiont-induced death of offspring from matings of infected males and uninfected females. Here, I explored the evolution of this symbiont and its reproductive manipulations, and found that closely related Cardinium strains have a tendency to associate with closely related hosts and the reproductive manipulations do not display a clear phylogenetic signal. To further understand the possible genes underlying these reproductive manipulations, I sequenced four Cardinium genomes and compared these with the two genomes analyzed in the literature. In these comparisons, I found that, although closely related Cardinium strains tend to reside in closely related hosts, there is no evidence for a suite of genes associated with host specificity, as few differences separate two strains residing in different host orders, suggesting that ecological opportunity for horizontal transmission may be more limiting to Cardinium than genomic capability. I additionally identify some genes that may be associated with the Cardinium’s ability to induce PI and CI in its wasp host. Overall, this dissertation has led to a better understanding of Cardinium and its effects on its hosts.
    • Factors That Contribute to Mental Health in Combat Injured Military Women

      Dye, Judy Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Background: As military women enter roles directly related to combat, they will have greater risk of injury. The present study examined the prevalence of mental health conditions among female service members one year postinjury, and analyzed factors which may place women at risk for mental health concerns and lower quality of life (QOL). Methods: A total of 1,012 U.S. servicewomen who sustained combat-related injury in Iraq and Afghanistan were identified from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database (EMED). Injury severity was calculated and QOL scores were collected from a subset of the women. Injury severity, military occupation, branch of service, age, rank, marital status, number of deployments, initial treatment facility, and environment of care were collected as predictor variables. The Military Health System Data Repository was queried for mental health International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision codes occurring within one year postinjury. Results: Within the first year postinjury, 404 women (40%) were diagnosed with mental health conditions. The most common were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (n = 203, 20%), depressive disorders (n = 123, 12.1%), adjustment disorders (n = 92, 9.0%), and anxiety disorders (n = 81, 8.0%). Logistic regression identified that women with minor or moderate injuries had lower odds of mental health diagnoses. Occupation categories of combat support and communications predicted fewer mental health issues. Enlisted women had increased risk of mental health issues. Linear regression showed that officers had higher QOL compared with enlisted women 0.055 (95% CI, 0.005-0.183), p<.05. Women serving in the Air Force had higher QOL postinjury 0.119 (95% CI, .055-.183), p<.000. An independent samples t-test showed that women with mental health diagnoses postinjury (M = 0.46, SD = 0.12) had significantly lower QOL scores (range 0-1) compared to those without mental health diagnoses (M = 0.52, SD = 0.13), t(3.46), p <.05. Conclusions: These findings showed that PTSD, depression, adjustment disorder, and anxiety comprise the most prevalent mental health diagnoses in this population. QOL is significantly lower in injured women with mental health issues after injury. Further research is needed to discover strategies for maintaining optimum health in this population.
    • Evaluation of a Medically Supervised, Multidisciplinary Obesity Management Program on Community Hospital Staff

      Celaya, Melisa P. (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      Obesity is presently one of the leading preventable causes of mortality and is an increasing issue that affects the workplace. This pilot study investigates the effects of a multidisciplinary obesity management program on employees within a community hospital setting. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome factors of the intervention and to detect an association between the participants’ biological factors, psychological status, eating behaviors, and lifestyle components to that of their current body weight status. Methods. An evaluation of a tailored obesity management program was conducted in a corporate setting with employees of a large community hospital. The evaluation sought to determine if this program could be efficiently and effectively implemented in this corporate setting. This program also allowed an exploration of those sociological, biological, and behavioral factors that were associated with weight loss. An employee health outcomes assessment visit was used to identify, recruit and enroll overweight employees into a quasi-experimental study designed to evaluate potential impacts of a tailored weight management program. The 6-month intervention included medical assessments, nutritional coaching, activity counseling, and behavioral therapy. The following specific aims were proposed for this dissertation research: Specific Aim 1 sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary weight loss program to change a series of modifiable health risk factors, body composition, clinical indicators, and biological markers from baseline to 6 months for overweight participants. Specific Aim 2 evaluated factors associated with achieving weight loss and patterns of attrition from the program. Weight and lifestyle factors included onset of obesity, family history, weight loss history, weight loss goals, self-perceptions, physical activity factors, and eating habits/patterns. Within Specific Aim 3, we determined if body composition measurements [body mass index (BMI), weight, basal metabolic rate, fat mass, percent fat, fat free mass, and total body water] correlated with standing or supine measurements of waist, hip, or thigh circumferences. We also investigated if there was a significant difference between recording measurements made in both positions. This aim sought to determine if both sets of position measurements needed to be included for subsequent weight management studies. Results. Forty-six (46) employees, with a mean age of 48.6 +/- 10.9 years and predominately female (91.3%), consented to participate in the pilot intervention, with 26 participants completing the 6 months (response = 50.9%). Statistically significant changes from baseline were seen at 6 months in the 44 participants that continued in the study after enrollment. In the intent to treat analysis, the participants, regardless of completion status, had a clinically significant (p<.0001) mean percent weight loss of 4.1% and a total weight loss of 9.3 pounds, with a corresponding 5.6% mean weight loss in those participants that completed the program. When analyzing predictors of attrition from the program, models indicated significant associations between overall program attrition and an increase in baseline systolic blood pressure (p=0.02), along with decreased compliance with eating three meals per day (p=0.04). Primary attrition (dropout < 3 months) was statistically associated with an increase in baseline systolic blood pressure (p=0.02) and decreased compliance with eating three meals per day (p=0.01). Secondary attrition (dropout between 3-6 months) was associated with decreased compliance with eating three meals per day (p=0.05) and an increase in weight loss expectations during the intervention (p=0.05). The mean absolute difference between the two techniques (standing vs. supine) was 4.14 inches for waist, hip, and thigh measurements combined. An increase in body mass index was associated with a greater magnitude of discrepancy in the measurement between the two techniques for waist circumference (p=0.02). Conclusions. The changes seen following this multidisciplinary intervention were clinically significant and advantageous for the participants. These substantial results suggest that the use of multidisciplinary weight management programs merits further investigation in larger, randomized, controlled trials.
    • Cantando La Madre Patria: Mexican Musical Heritage in Tucson, 1939-1983

      Merriam-Castro, Kelley Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      The maintenance, performance, and practice of Mexican music formed part of a resistance effort against cultural, political, economic, gendered, and geographic marginalization throughout the course of the twentieth century in Tucson, Arizona. This project defines iconic, popular Mexican music as música cósmica, a term inspired by José Velasco’s raza cósmica, and which refers to the music’s role as a unifying cultural expression for individuals of Mexican descent in Tucson and other diaspora communities. This project draws from new and archived interviews, newspapers, recorded performances, radio programs, and other ephemera of Tucson’s musical past to outline how la música cósmica formed part of an organic cultural expression of the people of the U.S. southwest, one that informed and was informed by the corpus being developed and promoted out of Mexico City. The process of maintaining la música cósmica in Tucson as a source of collective identity and resistance involved a deep commitment to maintaining musical places, spaces, and talents in the face of political, social, and geographic marginalization, including the physical destruction of Mexican homes and businesses in the name of urban renewal. Community leaders and music teachers viewed the teaching of música cósmica to Tucson youth as part of a social justice educational revolution, yet to teach the music they first had to overcome the internalization of anti-Mexican sentiment that viewed Mexican cultural expressions as inferior and overtly feminine. They reclaimed pride in this marginalized identity, the feminized fatherland or madre patria, through reframing the interpretation of the music as a cultural expression requiring precision, excellence, and that held monetary value. Music teachers employed a commitment to excellence and an insistence on paid performances to transform the perception of the music from that of an expression of inferior culture to one worthy of pride, respect, and admiration. Tucsonans approached the teaching and performing of la música cósmica with a profound sense of duty, one that inspired heroic acts of dedication and united Tucsonans of Mexican descent in spite of otherwise deep and painful divisions over political ideologies, popular tastes, skin color, personal experience, and the process of social change. The deep scar left by urban renewal, neighborhood demolition, and family relocation left many bitter divisions among members of Tucson’s community of Mexican descent. Nonetheless, la música cósmica continued to play a unifying role, and Tucsonans came together across these differences to ensure its survival, and to ensure their own cultural survival in the city´s public narrative as a result. By the 1980s, Tucson boasted numerous youth mariachi programs and hosted the first annual International Mariachi Conference, converting a city that continued to struggle with its collective identity into a global center for the teaching and performing of Mexican music.
    • Caring for Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure: An Educational Video and Pilot Study

      Smith, Marie Emily Brobeck (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Background: Prenatal exposure to opioids, cocaine, and methamphetamine is associated with alterations in fetal brain that lead to structural changes in the brain postnatally, contributing to developmental and behavioral effects seen throughout childhood. Opioid exposure is associated with withdrawal in newborns, effects on somatic growth of infants, difficulty with executive functions and a tendency towards externalizing behaviors in older children. Cocaine and methamphetamine exposure are associated with effects on somatic growth, irritability and feeding issues in infants, problems with executive functions, and externalizing behaviors. Many substance-exposed children are placed in foster care and the pre-licensure training for foster parents does not specifically address how to care for substance-exposed children. Purpose: To create and evaluate a video that outlines common effects of prenatal exposure to opioids, cocaine, and methamphetamine, as well as evidenced-based caregiver interventions. Methods: The script for the video “Caring for Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure: Opioids, Cocaine, and Methamphetamine” was written by the author and evaluated by two clinical experts. The video was filmed and was presented to 6 licensed foster parents and 1 unlicensed adoptive parent who evaluated the video’s presentation at Devereux Foster Care Agency in Tucson, AZ using the Patient Educational Materials Assessment Tool for Audio/Visual (PEMAT-AV). Responses were entered into the PEMAT Autoscoring tool and component scores for understadability and actionability were calculated. Results: Both clinical experts evaluated the video’s content as being factual, and consistent with evidence-based research. Mean PEMAT-AV understandability and actionability scores were both 100%. Discussion: The video’s content and presentation are both strong as evidenced by high evaluation scores from clinical experts and foster parents, making it a useful educational tool for educating foster parents on caring for substance-exposed children. Further research is needed to determine if the viewing video increases foster parent knowledge and produces long-term change in parenting practices. Additionally, the video was designed to also be used to educate biological parents of substance-exposed children, but future studies are needed to determine if the video is an effective educational tool for this population.
    • Between Oil Pasts and Utopian Dreams: Making State and Economy in Oman’s Citizen Labor Industry

      Steiner, Robin Thomas (The University of Arizona., 2018)
      With oil reserves dwindling, efforts to create a diversified, post-oil economy in Oman have focused on building the human capital of citizens and promoting a new entrepreneurial ‘work culture’ among Omani employees and entrepreneurs. In a context in which state-provided jobs represent both an exchange of labor for a salary and a means of securing a citizen’s rightful share of the nation’s oil revenues, issues of productivity and workforce development are most often framed in terms of the ‘mindset’ of individual citizens. Drawing on 16 months of ethnographic fieldwork with experts and professionals in Oman’s thriving citizen labor industry—the industry of human resource specialists, consultants, career coaches, entrepreneurship trainers, and the organizations which support and sponsor them—this dissertation explores how utopian investments in Omani human capital have shaped the distributive governance of the Omani state, the production of persons, and the making of ‘an economy.’ In an environment in which economic ‘growth’ is driven by state-guided subsidy rather than market mechanisms, this dissertation describes how economic and managerial expertise is employed to create 'an economy’ in ways that are largely unaccompanied by the production of markets. By doing so, this dissertation highlights how seemingly neoliberal interventions aimed at ‘rolling back’ the state and cultivating entrepreneurial ‘mindsets’ have counterintuitively produced subjects who understand their personal and social ‘development’ as pieces of a larger system of distributive rights and obligations that is as much social and political as it is economic. Ultimately, by demonstrating how subsidy-driven investments in Oman’s citizen workforce reproduce distributive arrangements, this dissertation complicates the assumption that ‘development’ is an antidote to Oman’s natural resource dependence.