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Trends in Early Prenatal Care Among Women with Pre-Existing Diabetes: Have Income Disparities Changed?(MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, 2018-01)Background: Women with pre-existing diabetes are at high maternal risk for comorbidities and death, particularly when early prenatal care is not received. Low income is a known barrier to early prenatal care. It is unknown whether recent policies to expand access to prenatal care have reduced income disparities. We hypothesized that income disparities would be minimized and that the odds of receipt of first trimester prenatal care among women with pre-existing diabetes would become similar across income strata over time. Material and Methods: Using the Colorado birth certificate registry from 2007 to 2014, receipt of prenatal care was assessed retrospectively in 2,497 women with pre-existing diabetes. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between high (>$50,000), medium ($25,000-50,000), and low (<$25,000) income strata and receipt of first trimester prenatal care by birth year, adjusted for demographics. Results: High, medium, and low income represented 29.5%, 19.0%, and 51.5% of the cohort, respectively. Women with high income were more likely to receive first trimester care than women with low income from 2007 [adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.16 (1.18, 3.96)] through 2013 [1.66 (1.01, 2.73)], but significant differences were no longer observed in 2014 [1.59 (0.89, 2.84)]. The likelihood of receiving first trimester prenatal care was not significantly different between medium- and low-income strata from 2007 [1.07 (0.66, 1.74)] through 2014 [0.77 (0.48, 1.23)]. Conclusions: From 2007 to 2013, women in Colorado with diabetes were more likely to receive early prenatal care if they were in the highest income stratum than in the lowest stratum. In 2014, receipt of first trimester care became equitable across all income strata. Future work should examine national patterns of income with receipt of prenatal care and outcomes among women with pre-existing diabetes.
Drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in saphenous vein grafts: a double-blind, randomised trial.(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018-05-19)Few studies have examined the efficacy of drug-eluting stents (DES) for reducing aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass graft (SVG) failure compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients undergoing stenting of de-novo SVG lesions. We assessed the risks and benefits of the use of DES versus BMS in de-novo SVG lesions. Patients were recruited to our double-blind, randomised controlled trial from 25 US Department of Veterans Affairs centres. Eligible participants were aged at least 18 years and had at least one significant de-novo SVG lesion (50-99% stenosis of a 2·25-4·5 mm diameter SVG) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention with intent to use embolic protection devices. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, by phone randomisation system to receive a DES or BMS. Randomisation was stratified by presence or absence of diabetes and number of target SVG lesions requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (one or two or more) within each participating site by use of an adaptive scheme intended to balance the two stent type groups on marginal totals for the stratification factors. Patients, referring physicians, study coordinators, and outcome assessors were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the 12-month incidence of target vessel failure, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularisation. The DIVA trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01121224. Between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2015, 599 patients were randomly assigned to the stent groups, and the data for 597 patients were used. The patients' mean age was 68·6 (SD 7·6) years, and 595 (>99%) patients were men. The two stent groups were similar for most baseline characteristics. At 12 months, the incidence of target vessel failure was 17% (51 of 292) in the DES group versus 19% (58 of 305) in the BMS group (adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·63-1·34, p=0·70). Between-group differences in the components of the primary endpoint, serious adverse events, or stent thrombosis were not significant. Enrolment was stopped before the revised target sample size of 762 patients was reached. In patients undergoing stenting of de-novo SVG lesions, no significant differences in outcomes between those receiving DES and BMS during 12 months of follow-up were found. The study results have important economic implications in countries with high DES prices such as the USA, because they suggest that the lower-cost BMS can be used in SVG lesions without compromising either safety or efficacy.
Sensitive and specific post-call filtering of genetic variants in xenograft and primary tumors(OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-05-15)Motivation: Tumor genome sequencing offers great promise for guiding research and therapy, but spurious variant calls can arise from multiple sources. Mouse contamination can generate many spurious calls when sequencing patient-derived xenografts. Paralogous genome sequences can also generate spurious calls when sequencing any tumor. We developed a BLAST-based algorithm, Mouse And Paralog EXterminator (MAPEX), to identify and filter out spurious calls from both these sources. Results: When calling variants from xenografts, MAPEX has similar sensitivity and specificity to more complex algorithms. When applied to any tumor, MAPEX also automatically flags calls that potentially arise from paralogous sequences. Our implementation, mapexr, runs quickly and easily on a desktop computer. MAPEX is thus a useful addition to almost any pipeline for calling genetic variants in tumors.
Failure to achieve first attempt success at intubation using video laryngoscopy is associated with increased complications(SPRINGER-VERLAG ITALIA SRL, 2017-12)The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the association between first attempt success and intubation-related complications in the Intensive Care Unit after the widespread adoption of video laryngoscopy. We further sought to characterize and identify the predictors of complications that occur despite first attempt success. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive intubations performed with video laryngoscopy at an academic medical Intensive Care Unit. Operator, procedural, and complication data were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the intubation attempts and the occurrence of one or more complications. A total of 905 patients were intubated using a video laryngoscope. First attempt success occurred in 739 (81.7 %), whereas > 1 attempt was needed in 166 (18.3 %). One or more complications occurred in 146 (19.8 %) of those intubated on the first attempt versus 107 (64.5 %, p < 0.001) of those requiring more than one attempt. Logistic regression analysis shows that > 1 attempt is associated with 6.4 (95 % CI 4.4-9.3) times the adjusted odds of at least one complication. Pre-intubation predictors of at least one complication despite first attempt success include vomit or edema in the airway as well as the presence of hypoxemia or hypotension. There are increased odds of complications with even a second attempt at intubation in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications occur frequently despite a successful first attempt, and as such, the goal of airway management should not be simply first attempt success, but instead first attempt success without complications.
Efficiency of Reovirus Concentration from Water with Positively Charged Filters(SPRINGER, 2018-06)This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.