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Featured submissions

January 2023

December 2022

November 2022

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  • Clinically Relevant Drug Interactions with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

    Edinoff, A.N.; Swinford, C.R.; Odisho, A.S.; Burroughs, C.R.; Stark, C.W.; Raslan, W.A.; Cornett, E.M.; Kaye, A.M.; Kaye, A.D.; College of Medicine-Tucson, University of Arizona (Open Medical Publishing, 2022)
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) are a class of drugs that were originally developed for the treatment of depression but have since been expanded to be used in management of affective and neurological disorders, as well as stroke and aging-related neurocognitive changes. Ranging from irreversible to reversible and selective to non-selective, these drugs target the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme and prevent the oxidative deamination of various monoamines and catecholamines such as serotonin and dopamine, respectively. Tyramine is a potent releaser of norepinephrine (NE) and is found in high concentrations in foods such as aged cheeses and meats. Under normal conditions, NE is unable to accumulate to toxic levels due to the presence of MAO-A, an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters, including NE. When MAO-A is inhibited, the capacity to handle tyramine intake from the diet is significantly reduced causing the brain to be vulnerable to overstimulation of postsynaptic adrenergic receptors with as little as 8-10 mg of tyramine ingested and can result in life-threatening blood pressure elevations. In addition to adverse reactions with certain foods, both older and newer MAOIs can negatively interact with both sympathomimetic and serotonergic drugs. In general, patients on a MAOI want to avoid two types of medications: those that can elevate blood pressure via sympathomimetic actions (e.g., phenylephrine and oxymetazoline) and those that can increase serotonin levels via 5-HT reuptake inhibition (e.g., dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, and brompheniramine). Illicit drugs that stimulate the central nervous system such as ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) act as serotonin releasers. Patient involvement is also crucial to ensure any interaction within the healthcare setting includes making other providers aware of a MAOI prescription as well as avoiding certain OTC medications that can interact adversely with MAOIs. © 2022, Open Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.
  • A comprehensive review of intraarticular knee injection therapy, geniculate injections, and peripheral nerve stimulation for knee pain in clinical practice

    Poliwoda, S.; Noor, N.; Mousa, B.; Sarwary, Z.; Noss, B.; Urits, I.; Viswanath, O.; Behara, R.; Ulicny, K.; Howe, A.; et al. (Open Medical Publishing, 2022)
    The knee is the most common joint in adults associated with morbidity. Many pathologies are associated with knee damage, such as gout or rheumathoid arthritis, but the primary condition is osteoarthritis (OA). Not only can osteoarthritis cause significant pain, but it also can result in signficant disability as well. Treatment for this condition varies, starting off with oral analgesics and physical therapy to surgical total knee replacmenet. In the gamut of this various treatments, a conservative approach has included intra articular steroid injections. With time, researchers and clinicians determined that other components injected to the knee may additionally provide relief of this condition. In this investigation, we describe different types of knee injections such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), hyaluronic acid, stem cells, and prolotherapy. Additionally, we describe the role of geniculate knee injections, radiofrequency, and periopheral nerve stimulation. These treatments should be considered for patients with knee pain refractory to conservative therapies. © 2022, Open Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.
  • The Value of Classical Islamic Thoufor Muslims Today

    Lucas, S.; School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies, University of Arizona (International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2020)
    This article challenges the assertion, found in the writings Dr. Taha Jabir Al-Alwani and other Muslim reformers, that Islamic thought declined precipitously in the early centuries of Islam and is of little value to contemporary Muslims. It introduces readers to the sophis-ticated thought of four diverse Muslim thinkers from the 5th/11th century who each wrote about topics that remain important to Muslims today, such as the nature of the soul, ethics, the purpose of knowledge, and spirituality. These thinkers are the philosopher-his-torian Miskawayh, the Sunni Mu‘tazili al-Ḥākim al-Jishumī, the Zahiri Ibn Ḥazm, and the Hadith scholar al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī. In addition to drawing specific lessons from these classical thinkers’ writings, the article encourages contemporary Muslims to emulate their practice of reading widely, including works of Muslim phi-losophy and theology, and to appreciate the significant connection they made between the acquisition of knowledge and its application to daily life. © 2020 International Institute of Islamic Though.
  • Future Directions for Digital Literacy Fluency using Cognitive Flexibility Research: A Review of Selected Digital Literacy Paradigms and Theoretical Frameworks

    Caton, A.; Bradshaw-Ward, D.; Kinshuk; Savenye, W.; University of Arizona (Commonwealth of Learning, 2022)
    As learners engage, test, and apply new subject knowledge, they often expend their cognitive capacity on the technological tools designed to capture their learning progress and outcomes. The energy and attention spent on these tools reduces their capacity to engage deeply with new learning concepts. Digital literacy skills require both cognitive and technical skills to develop a learner’s ability to locate, use, and communicate information. Increasingly complex information environments create various barriers for student learning, and as our learning and working industries continue to evolve and integrate technologies, students must overcome these barriers by bridging learning needs and technology expectations. This research explores the value of developing digital literacy to improve learners’ cognitive flexibility by decreasing technological cognitive load and increasing learning fluency. The findings highlight the need for establishing scaffolded digital literacy skills and digital tool selection, and expand college readiness requirements to include digital literacy as a prerequisite skill for learners. © 2022, Commonwealth of Learning. All rights reserved.
  • An Evaluation of Electrostatic Lofting and Subsequent Particle Motion on Bennu

    Hartzell, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Hergenrother, C.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Institute of Physics, 2022)
    Electrostatic lofting is the detachment of particles from a surface that occurs if the electrostatic force on the particles is greater than the forces binding the particles to the surface. Electrostatic lofting has been hypothesized to occur on the Moon and observed in the laboratory environment. Because gravity is much weaker on asteroids than on the Moon, the hypothesis of electrostatic lofting has naturally been extended to these smaller airless bodies. We evaluate the feasibility of electrostatic lofting on Bennu using two formulations of the patched charge model. We find that submillimeter particles can be lofted from Bennu’s dayside and, depending on their initial conditions, will reimpact or escape. The size and speed of the predicted electrostatically lofted particles are compared to those of the particle ejection events recently observed on Bennu. We find that dayside electrostatic lofting is not consistent with the size and speed of particles in the largest ejection events observed by the OSIRIS-REx mission. However, the escape of submillimeter particles has implications for the particle size distribution on Bennu’s surface. Additionally, we model particle charging on Bennu’s nightside due to secondary electron emission and find the resulting electrostatic force to be too weak to produce electrostatic lofting on the nightside. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.

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