Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/610320
Title:
Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids
Author:
Oliver, Kerry; Noge, Koji; Huang, Emma; Campos, Jaime; Becerra, Judith; Hunter, Martha
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA; Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan 010-0195; Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Department of Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Issue Date:
2012
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Citation:
Oliver et al. BMC Biology 2012, 10:11 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/11
Journal:
BMC Biology
Rights:
© 2012 Oliver et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
Collection Information:
This item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
Abstract:
BACKGROUND:Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges.RESULTS:We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-beta-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination.CONCLUSIONS:Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally, our results indicate that natural enemies are not passive victims of defensive symbionts, and that an evolutionary arms race between A. pisum and the parasitoid A. ervi may be mediated by a bacterial symbiosis.
EISSN:
1741-7007
DOI:
10.1186/1741-7007-10-11
Version:
Final published version
Additional Links:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/11

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorOliver, Kerryen
dc.contributor.authorNoge, Kojien
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Emmaen
dc.contributor.authorCampos, Jaimeen
dc.contributor.authorBecerra, Judithen
dc.contributor.authorHunter, Marthaen
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T09:04:08Z-
dc.date.available2016-05-20T09:04:08Z-
dc.date.issued2012en
dc.identifier.citationOliver et al. BMC Biology 2012, 10:11 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/11en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1741-7007-10-11en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610320-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont). Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism), then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges.RESULTS:We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-beta-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination.CONCLUSIONS:Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont-based defense. More generally, our results indicate that natural enemies are not passive victims of defensive symbionts, and that an evolutionary arms race between A. pisum and the parasitoid A. ervi may be mediated by a bacterial symbiosis.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/11en
dc.rights© 2012 Oliver et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)en
dc.titleParasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphidsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1741-7007en
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan 010-0195en
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USAen
dc.identifier.journalBMC Biologyen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.