Clostridium sordellii genome analysis reveals plasmid localized toxin genes encoded within pathogenicity loci

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/610282
Title:
Clostridium sordellii genome analysis reveals plasmid localized toxin genes encoded within pathogenicity loci
Author:
Couchman, Edward C.; Browne, Hilary P.; Dunn, Matt; Lawley, Trevor D.; Songer, J. Glenn; Hall, Val; Petrovska, Liljana; Vidor, Callum; Awad, Milena; Lyras, Dena; Fairweather, Neil F.
Affiliation:
Department of Life Sciences, Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute; Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona; Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales; Veterinary Laboratories Agency; Department of Microbiology, Monash University
Issue Date:
2015
Publisher:
BioMed Central Ltd
Citation:
Couchman et al. BMC Genomics (2015) 16:392 DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1613-2
Journal:
BMC Genomics
Rights:
© 2015 Couchman et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
Collection Information:
This item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Clostridium sordellii can cause severe infections in animals and humans, the latter associated with trauma, toxic shock and often-fatal gynaecological infections. Strains can produce two large clostridial cytotoxins (LCCs), TcsL and TcsH, related to those produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium perfringens, but the genetic basis of toxin production remains uncharacterised. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequences of 44 strains isolated from human and animal infections in the UK, US and Australia placed the species into four clades. Although all strains originated from animal or clinical disease, only 5 strains contained LCC genes: 4 strains contain tcsL alone and one strain contains tcsL and tcsH. Four toxin-positive strains were found within one clade. Where present, tcsL and tcsH were localised in a pathogenicity locus, similar to but distinct from that present in C. difficile. In contrast to C. difficile, where the LCCs are chromosomally localised, the C. sordellii tcsL and tcsH genes are localised on plasmids. Our data suggest gain and loss of entire toxigenic plasmids in addition to horizontal transfer of the pathogenicity locus. A high quality, annotated sequence of ATCC9714 reveals many putative virulence factors including neuraminidase, phospholipase C and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin sordellilysin that are highly conserved between all strains studied. CONCLUSIONS: Genome analysis of C. sordellii reveals that the LCCs, the major virulence factors, are localised on plasmids. Many strains do not contain the LCC genes; it is probable that in several of these cases the plasmid has been lost upon laboratory subculture. Our data are consistent with LCCs being the primary virulence factors in the majority of infections, but LCC-negative strains may precipitate certain categories of infection. A high quality genome sequence reveals putative virulence factors whose role in virulence can be investigated.
EISSN:
1471-2164
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-015-1613-2
Keywords:
Clostridium sordellii; Large Clostridial Cytotoxin; Plasmid; PaLoc
Version:
Final published version
Additional Links:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/16/392

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorCouchman, Edward C.en
dc.contributor.authorBrowne, Hilary P.en
dc.contributor.authorDunn, Matten
dc.contributor.authorLawley, Trevor D.en
dc.contributor.authorSonger, J. Glennen
dc.contributor.authorHall, Valen
dc.contributor.authorPetrovska, Liljanaen
dc.contributor.authorVidor, Callumen
dc.contributor.authorAwad, Milenaen
dc.contributor.authorLyras, Denaen
dc.contributor.authorFairweather, Neil F.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T09:03:08Z-
dc.date.available2016-05-20T09:03:08Z-
dc.date.issued2015en
dc.identifier.citationCouchman et al. BMC Genomics (2015) 16:392 DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1613-2en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12864-015-1613-2en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610282-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Clostridium sordellii can cause severe infections in animals and humans, the latter associated with trauma, toxic shock and often-fatal gynaecological infections. Strains can produce two large clostridial cytotoxins (LCCs), TcsL and TcsH, related to those produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium perfringens, but the genetic basis of toxin production remains uncharacterised. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequences of 44 strains isolated from human and animal infections in the UK, US and Australia placed the species into four clades. Although all strains originated from animal or clinical disease, only 5 strains contained LCC genes: 4 strains contain tcsL alone and one strain contains tcsL and tcsH. Four toxin-positive strains were found within one clade. Where present, tcsL and tcsH were localised in a pathogenicity locus, similar to but distinct from that present in C. difficile. In contrast to C. difficile, where the LCCs are chromosomally localised, the C. sordellii tcsL and tcsH genes are localised on plasmids. Our data suggest gain and loss of entire toxigenic plasmids in addition to horizontal transfer of the pathogenicity locus. A high quality, annotated sequence of ATCC9714 reveals many putative virulence factors including neuraminidase, phospholipase C and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin sordellilysin that are highly conserved between all strains studied. CONCLUSIONS: Genome analysis of C. sordellii reveals that the LCCs, the major virulence factors, are localised on plasmids. Many strains do not contain the LCC genes; it is probable that in several of these cases the plasmid has been lost upon laboratory subculture. Our data are consistent with LCCs being the primary virulence factors in the majority of infections, but LCC-negative strains may precipitate certain categories of infection. A high quality genome sequence reveals putative virulence factors whose role in virulence can be investigated.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltden
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/16/392en
dc.rights© 2015 Couchman et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)en
dc.subjectClostridium sordelliien
dc.subjectLarge Clostridial Cytotoxinen
dc.subjectPlasmiden
dc.subjectPaLocen
dc.titleClostridium sordellii genome analysis reveals plasmid localized toxin genes encoded within pathogenicity locien
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2164en
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Life Sciences, Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College Londonen
dc.contributor.departmentWellcome Trust Sanger Instituteen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizonaen
dc.contributor.departmentAnaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Walesen
dc.contributor.departmentVeterinary Laboratories Agencyen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Microbiology, Monash Universityen
dc.identifier.journalBMC Genomicsen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
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