Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/610230
Title:
Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence
Author:
Wang, Dongmei; Bowman, Dwight; Brown, Heidi; Harrington, Laura; Kaufman, Phillip; McKay, Tanja; Nelson, Charles; Sharp, Julia; Lund, Robert
Affiliation:
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0975, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA; Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, State University, AR 72467, USA; Animal Medical Center, Anniston, AL 36201, USA
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Citation:
Wang et al. Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:264 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/264
Journal:
Parasites & Vectors
Rights:
© 2014 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
Collection Information:
This item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
Abstract:
BACKGROUND:This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates.METHODS:The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence.RESULTS:All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist.CONCLUSIONS:The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence.
EISSN:
1756-3305
DOI:
10.1186/1756-3305-7-264
Keywords:
Canine heartworm; Dirofilaria immitis; Head-banging smoothing; Mosquito vectors; Prevalence rates
Version:
Final published version
Additional Links:
http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/264

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorWang, Dongmeien
dc.contributor.authorBowman, Dwighten
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Heidien
dc.contributor.authorHarrington, Lauraen
dc.contributor.authorKaufman, Phillipen
dc.contributor.authorMcKay, Tanjaen
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Charlesen
dc.contributor.authorSharp, Juliaen
dc.contributor.authorLund, Roberten
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T09:01:40Z-
dc.date.available2016-05-20T09:01:40Z-
dc.date.issued2014en
dc.identifier.citationWang et al. Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:264 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/264en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1756-3305-7-264en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610230-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates.METHODS:The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence.RESULTS:All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist.CONCLUSIONS:The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/264en
dc.rights© 2014 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)en
dc.subjectCanine heartwormen
dc.subjectDirofilaria immitisen
dc.subjectHead-banging smoothingen
dc.subjectMosquito vectorsen
dc.subjectPrevalence ratesen
dc.titleFactors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalenceen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1756-3305en
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0975, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDivision of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentEntomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, State University, AR 72467, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal Medical Center, Anniston, AL 36201, USAen
dc.identifier.journalParasites & Vectorsen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
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