A precocious adult visual center in the larva defines the unique optic lobe of the split-eyed whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/610139
Title:
A precocious adult visual center in the larva defines the unique optic lobe of the split-eyed whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus
Author:
Lin, Chan; Strausfeld, Nicholas
Affiliation:
Graduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology & Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Center for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Citation:
Lin and Strausfeld Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:7 http://www.frontiersinzoology.com/content/10/1/7
Journal:
Frontiers in Zoology
Rights:
© 2013 Lin and Strausfeld; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
Collection Information:
This item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
Abstract:
INTRODUCTION:Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are aquatic insects living on the water surface. They are equipped with four compound eyes, an upper pair viewing above the water surface and a lower submerged pair viewing beneath the water surface, but little is known about how their visual brain centers (optic lobes) are organized to serve such unusual eyes. We show here, for the first time, the peculiar optic lobe organization of the larval and adult whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus.RESULTS:The divided compound eyes of adult whirligig beetles supply optic lobes that are split into two halves, an upper half and lower half, comprising an upper and lower lamina, an upper and lower medulla and a bilobed partially split lobula. However, the lobula plate, a neuropil that in flies is known to be involved in mediating stabilized flight, exists only in conjunction with the lower lobe of the lobula. We show that, as in another group of predatory beetle larvae, in the whirligig beetle the aquatic larva precociously develops a lobula plate equipped with wide-field neurons. It is supplied by three larval laminas serving the three dorsal larval stemmata, which are adjacent to the developing upper compound eye.CONCLUSIONS:In adult whirligig beetles, dual optic neuropils serve the upper aerial eyes and the lower subaquatic eyes. The exception is the lobula plate. A lobula plate develops precociously in the larva where it is supplied by inputs from three larval stemmata that have a frontal-upper field of view, in which contrasting objects such as prey items trigger a body lunge and mandibular grasp. This precocious lobula plate is lost during pupal metamorphosis, whereas another lobula plate develops normally during metamorphosis and in the adult is associated with the lower eye. The different roles of the upper and lower lobula plates in supporting, respectively, larval predation and adult optokinetic balance are discussed. Precocious development of the upper lobula plate represents convergent evolution of an ambush hunting lifestyle, as exemplified by the terrestrial larvae of tiger beetles (Cicindelinae), in which activation of neurons in their precocious lobula plates, each serving two large larval stemmata, releases reflex body extension and mandibular grasp.
EISSN:
1742-9994
DOI:
10.1186/1742-9994-10-7
Keywords:
Gyrinidae; Optic lobe; Lobula plate; Motion detection; Stemmata; Cicindela
Version:
Final published version
Additional Links:
http://www.frontiersinzoology.com/content/10/1/7

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorLin, Chanen
dc.contributor.authorStrausfeld, Nicholasen
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T08:59:26Z-
dc.date.available2016-05-20T08:59:26Z-
dc.date.issued2013en
dc.identifier.citationLin and Strausfeld Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:7 http://www.frontiersinzoology.com/content/10/1/7en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1742-9994-10-7en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610139-
dc.description.abstractINTRODUCTION:Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are aquatic insects living on the water surface. They are equipped with four compound eyes, an upper pair viewing above the water surface and a lower submerged pair viewing beneath the water surface, but little is known about how their visual brain centers (optic lobes) are organized to serve such unusual eyes. We show here, for the first time, the peculiar optic lobe organization of the larval and adult whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus.RESULTS:The divided compound eyes of adult whirligig beetles supply optic lobes that are split into two halves, an upper half and lower half, comprising an upper and lower lamina, an upper and lower medulla and a bilobed partially split lobula. However, the lobula plate, a neuropil that in flies is known to be involved in mediating stabilized flight, exists only in conjunction with the lower lobe of the lobula. We show that, as in another group of predatory beetle larvae, in the whirligig beetle the aquatic larva precociously develops a lobula plate equipped with wide-field neurons. It is supplied by three larval laminas serving the three dorsal larval stemmata, which are adjacent to the developing upper compound eye.CONCLUSIONS:In adult whirligig beetles, dual optic neuropils serve the upper aerial eyes and the lower subaquatic eyes. The exception is the lobula plate. A lobula plate develops precociously in the larva where it is supplied by inputs from three larval stemmata that have a frontal-upper field of view, in which contrasting objects such as prey items trigger a body lunge and mandibular grasp. This precocious lobula plate is lost during pupal metamorphosis, whereas another lobula plate develops normally during metamorphosis and in the adult is associated with the lower eye. The different roles of the upper and lower lobula plates in supporting, respectively, larval predation and adult optokinetic balance are discussed. Precocious development of the upper lobula plate represents convergent evolution of an ambush hunting lifestyle, as exemplified by the terrestrial larvae of tiger beetles (Cicindelinae), in which activation of neurons in their precocious lobula plates, each serving two large larval stemmata, releases reflex body extension and mandibular grasp.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.frontiersinzoology.com/content/10/1/7en
dc.rights© 2013 Lin and Strausfeld; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)en
dc.subjectGyrinidaeen
dc.subjectOptic lobeen
dc.subjectLobula plateen
dc.subjectMotion detectionen
dc.subjectStemmataen
dc.subjectCicindelaen
dc.titleA precocious adult visual center in the larva defines the unique optic lobe of the split-eyed whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatusen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1742-9994en
dc.contributor.departmentGraduate Interdisciplinary Program in Entomology & Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentCenter for Insect Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USAen
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Zoologyen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
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