Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/610051
Title:
Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages
Author:
Simonson, Tatum; Okinaka, Richard; Wang, Bingxiang; Easterday, W. R.; Huynh, Lynn; U'Ren, Jana; Dukerich, Meghan; Zanecki, Shaylan; Kenefic, Leo; Beaudry, Jodi; Schupp, James; Pearson, Talima; Wagner, David; Hoffmaster, Alex; Ravel, Jacques; Keim, Paul
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5640, USA; Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545, USA; Lanzhou Institute of Biological Product, Lanzhou, PR China; Epidemiologic Investigations Laboratory, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; The J Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA; Pathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Pathogen Genomics Division, 445 N Fifth Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
Issue Date:
2009
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Citation:
BMC Microbiology 2009, 9:71 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-71
Journal:
BMC Microbiology
Rights:
© 2009 Simonson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)
Collection Information:
This item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.
Abstract:
BACKGROUND:The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages) have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates.RESULTS:The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia; A.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China.CONCLUSION:B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum) in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads for not only trade but the movement of diseases such as anthrax along the ancient "silk road". Phylogenetic inference also suggests that the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, first identified in the original Ames strain isolated from Jim Hogg County, TX, is descended from the A.Br.001/002 sub-group that has a major presence in most of China. These results suggest a genetic discontinuity between the younger Ames sub-lineage in Texas and the large Western North American sub-lineage spread across central Canada and the Dakotas.
EISSN:
1471-2180
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2180-9-71
Version:
Final published version
Additional Links:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/9/71

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSimonson, Tatumen
dc.contributor.authorOkinaka, Richarden
dc.contributor.authorWang, Bingxiangen
dc.contributor.authorEasterday, W. R.en
dc.contributor.authorHuynh, Lynnen
dc.contributor.authorU'Ren, Janaen
dc.contributor.authorDukerich, Meghanen
dc.contributor.authorZanecki, Shaylanen
dc.contributor.authorKenefic, Leoen
dc.contributor.authorBeaudry, Jodien
dc.contributor.authorSchupp, Jamesen
dc.contributor.authorPearson, Talimaen
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorHoffmaster, Alexen
dc.contributor.authorRavel, Jacquesen
dc.contributor.authorKeim, Paulen
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-20T08:57:27Z-
dc.date.available2016-05-20T08:57:27Z-
dc.date.issued2009en
dc.identifier.citationBMC Microbiology 2009, 9:71 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-71en
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1471-2180-9-71en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/610051-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages) have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates.RESULTS:The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asiaen
dc.description.abstractA.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China.CONCLUSION:B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum) in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads for not only trade but the movement of diseases such as anthrax along the ancient "silk road". Phylogenetic inference also suggests that the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, first identified in the original Ames strain isolated from Jim Hogg County, TX, is descended from the A.Br.001/002 sub-group that has a major presence in most of China. These results suggest a genetic discontinuity between the younger Ames sub-lineage in Texas and the large Western North American sub-lineage spread across central Canada and the Dakotas.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/9/71en
dc.rights© 2009 Simonson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)en
dc.titleBacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineagesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2180en
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5640, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico, 87545, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentLanzhou Institute of Biological Product, Lanzhou, PR Chinaen
dc.contributor.departmentEpidemiologic Investigations Laboratory, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentThe J Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USAen
dc.contributor.departmentPathogen Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Pathogen Genomics Division, 445 N Fifth Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USAen
dc.identifier.journalBMC Microbiologyen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the UA Faculty Publications collection. For more information this item or other items in the UA Campus Repository, contact the University of Arizona Libraries at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.