Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/577087
Title:
Freeform Solar Concentrating Optics
Author:
Wheelwright, Brian
Issue Date:
2015
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 13-Feb-2016
Abstract:
Notwithstanding several years of robust growth, solar energy still only accounts for<1% of total electrical generation in the US. Before solar energy can substantially replace fossil fuels subsidy-free at utility scale, further cost reductions and efficiency improvements are needed in complete generating systems. Flat panel silicon PV modules are by far the most dominant solar technology today, but have little room for improvement in efficiency and are limited by balance of system costs. Concentrated PV (CPV) is an alternate approach with long-term potential for much higher efficiency in sunny climates. In CPV modules, large area optics collect and concentrate direct sunlight onto small multi-junction cells with>40% conversion efficiency. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto thermally absorbing receivers, which generate electricity with convention thermal cycles. In this dissertation, four new optical approaches to CPV and CSP with potential for lower cost are analyzed. Common to each approach is the use of large square glass reflectors, which have very low areal cost (~$35/m^2) and field-proven reliability in the CSP industry. Chapter 2 describes a freeform toroidal lens array used to intercept the low concentration line focus of a parabolic trough to produce multiple high concentration foci (>800X) for multi-junction cells. In Chapter 3, three embodiments of dish mirrors and freeform lenslet arrays are explored, including an off-axis system. In each case, a dish mirror illuminates a freeform lenslet array, which divides sunlight equally to a sparse matrix of multi-junction cells. The off-axis optical system achieves +/-0.45° acceptance angle and averages 1215X geometric concentration over 400 multi-junction cells. Chapter 4 proposes a new architecture for CSP central receivers that achieves extremely high collection efficiency (>70%) with unconventional heliostat field tracking. In Chapter 5, the design and preliminary testing of a spectrum-splitting hybrid PV/thermal generator is discussed. This system has the advantage of 'drop-in' capability in existing CSP trough plants and allows for thermal storage, an important mitigation to the intermittency of the solar resource.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
CPV; CSP; Freeform Optics; multi-junction; Solar; Optical Sciences; concentration
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Optical Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Angel, Roger

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleFreeform Solar Concentrating Opticsen_US
dc.creatorWheelwright, Brianen
dc.contributor.authorWheelwright, Brianen
dc.date.issued2015en
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en
dc.description.releaseRelease 13-Feb-2016en
dc.description.abstractNotwithstanding several years of robust growth, solar energy still only accounts for<1% of total electrical generation in the US. Before solar energy can substantially replace fossil fuels subsidy-free at utility scale, further cost reductions and efficiency improvements are needed in complete generating systems. Flat panel silicon PV modules are by far the most dominant solar technology today, but have little room for improvement in efficiency and are limited by balance of system costs. Concentrated PV (CPV) is an alternate approach with long-term potential for much higher efficiency in sunny climates. In CPV modules, large area optics collect and concentrate direct sunlight onto small multi-junction cells with>40% conversion efficiency. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto thermally absorbing receivers, which generate electricity with convention thermal cycles. In this dissertation, four new optical approaches to CPV and CSP with potential for lower cost are analyzed. Common to each approach is the use of large square glass reflectors, which have very low areal cost (~$35/m^2) and field-proven reliability in the CSP industry. Chapter 2 describes a freeform toroidal lens array used to intercept the low concentration line focus of a parabolic trough to produce multiple high concentration foci (>800X) for multi-junction cells. In Chapter 3, three embodiments of dish mirrors and freeform lenslet arrays are explored, including an off-axis system. In each case, a dish mirror illuminates a freeform lenslet array, which divides sunlight equally to a sparse matrix of multi-junction cells. The off-axis optical system achieves +/-0.45° acceptance angle and averages 1215X geometric concentration over 400 multi-junction cells. Chapter 4 proposes a new architecture for CSP central receivers that achieves extremely high collection efficiency (>70%) with unconventional heliostat field tracking. In Chapter 5, the design and preliminary testing of a spectrum-splitting hybrid PV/thermal generator is discussed. This system has the advantage of 'drop-in' capability in existing CSP trough plants and allows for thermal storage, an important mitigation to the intermittency of the solar resource.en
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectCPVen
dc.subjectCSPen
dc.subjectFreeform Opticsen
dc.subjectmulti-junctionen
dc.subjectSolaren
dc.subjectOptical Sciencesen
dc.subjectconcentrationen
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Sciencesen
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen
dc.contributor.advisorAngel, Rogeren
dc.contributor.committeememberAngel, Rogeren
dc.contributor.committeememberKoshel, Johnen
dc.contributor.committeememberKostuk, Raymonden
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