The Safety and Efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom) Cultivation on Prosopis spp. Products

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/556978
Title:
The Safety and Efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom) Cultivation on Prosopis spp. Products
Author:
Jackson, Lauren Wayne III
Issue Date:
2015
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Improving food safety and food security is imperative to adequately feed a growing population that is expected to exceed 9 billion people by 2050. Mushroom cultivation provides unique opportunities to take advantage of underutilized resources and produce high-quality food from otherwise inedible or unsafe food sources. Pleurotus ostreatus is a ligninolytic and biotechnologically relevant fungus that can be cultivated on a diverse array of lignocellulosic byproducts. Prosopis spp. are abundant in the Sonoran Desert and broadly distributed in semi-arid to arid regions around the globe. Prosopis spp. legumes (pods), and approximately 25% of all commonly cultivated crops, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, a highly carcinogenic and potentially lethal mycotoxin. This work aimed to (1) identify novel lignocellulosic byproducts from the Sonoran Desert for use as substrate materials in Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultivation; (2) evaluate the safety of mushrooms cultivated on plant products that are contaminated with aflatoxin; and (3) measure the amount of aflatoxin that is degraded by P. ostreatus after the contaminated products have been colonized by the fungus. Prosopis spp. pods were identified as suitable substrate component for P. ostreatus production by conducting yield evaluations and finding that the biological efficiency increased with increasing percentages of pods. No detectable quantity of aflatoxin could be measured in mushrooms that were cultivated on maize that was naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at concentrations up to 2500 ng g⁻¹. P. ostreatus degraded AFB₁ by >85% in maize with initial concentrations of 2500 ng g⁻¹ AFB₁ in repeated experiments. Thus, the cultivation of P. ostreatus on aflatoxin-contaminated products may be a viable method to produce a safe and high quality food from an otherwise unsafe food source, and may double as a means to reduce the aflatoxin concentration in contaminated plant products to levels that are acceptable for use as livestock feed.
Type:
text; Electronic Thesis
Keywords:
Bioremediation; Degradation; Pleurotus; Prosopis; Sustainability; Plant Pathology; Aflatoxin
Degree Name:
M.S.
Degree Level:
masters
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Plant Pathology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Pryor, Barry M.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleThe Safety and Efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom) Cultivation on Prosopis spp. Productsen_US
dc.creatorJackson, Lauren Wayne IIIen
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Lauren Wayne IIIen
dc.date.issued2015en
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en
dc.description.abstractImproving food safety and food security is imperative to adequately feed a growing population that is expected to exceed 9 billion people by 2050. Mushroom cultivation provides unique opportunities to take advantage of underutilized resources and produce high-quality food from otherwise inedible or unsafe food sources. Pleurotus ostreatus is a ligninolytic and biotechnologically relevant fungus that can be cultivated on a diverse array of lignocellulosic byproducts. Prosopis spp. are abundant in the Sonoran Desert and broadly distributed in semi-arid to arid regions around the globe. Prosopis spp. legumes (pods), and approximately 25% of all commonly cultivated crops, are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, a highly carcinogenic and potentially lethal mycotoxin. This work aimed to (1) identify novel lignocellulosic byproducts from the Sonoran Desert for use as substrate materials in Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultivation; (2) evaluate the safety of mushrooms cultivated on plant products that are contaminated with aflatoxin; and (3) measure the amount of aflatoxin that is degraded by P. ostreatus after the contaminated products have been colonized by the fungus. Prosopis spp. pods were identified as suitable substrate component for P. ostreatus production by conducting yield evaluations and finding that the biological efficiency increased with increasing percentages of pods. No detectable quantity of aflatoxin could be measured in mushrooms that were cultivated on maize that was naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at concentrations up to 2500 ng g⁻¹. P. ostreatus degraded AFB₁ by >85% in maize with initial concentrations of 2500 ng g⁻¹ AFB₁ in repeated experiments. Thus, the cultivation of P. ostreatus on aflatoxin-contaminated products may be a viable method to produce a safe and high quality food from an otherwise unsafe food source, and may double as a means to reduce the aflatoxin concentration in contaminated plant products to levels that are acceptable for use as livestock feed.en
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Thesisen
dc.subjectBioremediationen
dc.subjectDegradationen
dc.subjectPleurotusen
dc.subjectProsopisen
dc.subjectSustainabilityen
dc.subjectPlant Pathologyen
dc.subjectAflatoxinen
thesis.degree.nameM.S.en
thesis.degree.levelmastersen
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Pathologyen
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen
dc.contributor.advisorPryor, Barry M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberPryor, Barry M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberOrbach, Marc J.en
dc.contributor.committeememberVanEtten, Hansen
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