Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Surfaces with Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Phthalocyanines

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/344225
Title:
Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Surfaces with Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Phthalocyanines
Author:
Oquendo Galarza, Luis E.
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 16-Dec-2015
Abstract:
The overall efficiency of organic photovoltaics cells (OPVs) is influenced by the nature of the charge injection barrier at the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) bottom contact. Modification of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/organic interface with an electroactive molecular monolayer will potentially create a robust ohmic contact that will influence the efficiency of hole injection into the TCO. Asymmetric zinc Phthalocyanines (ZnPc) with a flexible phosphonic acid (PA) linker have been synthesized and used to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. The adsorption of PA functionalized asymmetric ZnPcs on an ITO/waveguide was monitored using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Polarized dependent ATR spectroscopy was used to determine the orientation of these absorbed subpopulations species on ITO modified surfaces as a function of wavelength using transverse electric (TE) or transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light. The first oxidation potential on absorbed monolayers was found by cyclic voltammetry to be resolved into two peaks indicative of two electrochemically distinct subpopulations of molecules, atributed to aggregates and monomerics forms of PA functionalized ZnPcs. Potential modulated ATR (PM-ATR) spectroelechtrochemistry was employed to measure the charge transfer rates constants (k(s,app)) at ITO modified surfaces using TE and TM polarized light. Faster charge transfer rate constants were found for molecules with a smaller tunneling distance. A k(s,app) of 3.9 x 10⁴ s⁻¹ represents the fastest rate measured for PA functionalized ZnPc chromophore tethered to an ITO waveguide electrode by PM-ATR. We synthesized and characterized the first examples of PA functionalized RuPcs to investigate the effect of molecular orientation on charge transfer properties at an ITO/organic interface. PA functionalized RuPcs have the ability to coordinate axial ligand to suppress aggregation, providing the flexibility of connecting the anchoring group through the axial position of the metal and allowing chemisorption of the molecule in plane with ITO. Cyclic voltammetry and ATR UV/vis spectroscopy on the modified ITO surface demonstrated a surface composition of a closed-packed monolayer of monomeric species. Measurement of the charge transfer rates constants demonstrated that RuPc anchored to ITO exhibited slow rates compared to corresponding surface bound ZnPcs. Finally, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new PA functionalized N-pyridinyl perylenediimide (PDI)-RuPc donor-acceptor dyad capable of chemisorption to ITO surfaces as a molecular-level heterojunction system to study photo induced charge separated states. The developed ensemble was proven to be stable on ITO for further study of charge injection events from the dyad to the oxide surface.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
electron transfer; phthalocyanines; Chemistry -- Data processing.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemistry
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
McGrath, Dominic V.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleModification of Indium Tin Oxide Surfaces with Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Phthalocyaninesen_US
dc.creatorOquendo Galarza, Luis E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOquendo Galarza, Luis E.en_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 16-Dec-2015en_US
dc.description.abstractThe overall efficiency of organic photovoltaics cells (OPVs) is influenced by the nature of the charge injection barrier at the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) bottom contact. Modification of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/organic interface with an electroactive molecular monolayer will potentially create a robust ohmic contact that will influence the efficiency of hole injection into the TCO. Asymmetric zinc Phthalocyanines (ZnPc) with a flexible phosphonic acid (PA) linker have been synthesized and used to modify indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. The adsorption of PA functionalized asymmetric ZnPcs on an ITO/waveguide was monitored using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Polarized dependent ATR spectroscopy was used to determine the orientation of these absorbed subpopulations species on ITO modified surfaces as a function of wavelength using transverse electric (TE) or transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light. The first oxidation potential on absorbed monolayers was found by cyclic voltammetry to be resolved into two peaks indicative of two electrochemically distinct subpopulations of molecules, atributed to aggregates and monomerics forms of PA functionalized ZnPcs. Potential modulated ATR (PM-ATR) spectroelechtrochemistry was employed to measure the charge transfer rates constants (k(s,app)) at ITO modified surfaces using TE and TM polarized light. Faster charge transfer rate constants were found for molecules with a smaller tunneling distance. A k(s,app) of 3.9 x 10⁴ s⁻¹ represents the fastest rate measured for PA functionalized ZnPc chromophore tethered to an ITO waveguide electrode by PM-ATR. We synthesized and characterized the first examples of PA functionalized RuPcs to investigate the effect of molecular orientation on charge transfer properties at an ITO/organic interface. PA functionalized RuPcs have the ability to coordinate axial ligand to suppress aggregation, providing the flexibility of connecting the anchoring group through the axial position of the metal and allowing chemisorption of the molecule in plane with ITO. Cyclic voltammetry and ATR UV/vis spectroscopy on the modified ITO surface demonstrated a surface composition of a closed-packed monolayer of monomeric species. Measurement of the charge transfer rates constants demonstrated that RuPc anchored to ITO exhibited slow rates compared to corresponding surface bound ZnPcs. Finally, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new PA functionalized N-pyridinyl perylenediimide (PDI)-RuPc donor-acceptor dyad capable of chemisorption to ITO surfaces as a molecular-level heterojunction system to study photo induced charge separated states. The developed ensemble was proven to be stable on ITO for further study of charge injection events from the dyad to the oxide surface.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectelectron transferen_US
dc.subjectphthalocyaninesen_US
dc.subjectChemistry -- Data processing.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMcGrath, Dominic V.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGlass, Richarden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChristie, Hamishen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArmstrong, Neal R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSaavedra, S. Scotten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMcGrath, Dominic V.en_US
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