Production of Expendable Reagents from Raw Waters and Industrial Wastes

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/344216
Title:
Production of Expendable Reagents from Raw Waters and Industrial Wastes
Author:
Davis, Jake Ryan
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 13-Nov-2016
Abstract:
A couple of processes for electrosynthetic production of expendable reagents, namely acids, bases, and oxidants, from the native salt content of raw waters and industrial wastes were investigated, and the composition of mixed acids and bases made of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride salts were predicted using a model predicated on conservation principles, mass action relations, and Pitzer equations. Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (BMED) was used to produce acids and bases in a single pass. Product concentration was limited only by the salt content of the feed water. The current efficiency for acid production was slightly higher than that for base, but neither dropped below 75%. Acid and base current utilization showed the same trends with respect to feed salt content and flow velocity, with higher efficiency at higher feed salt concentrations and flow velocities. Operating the BMED stack near the limiting current density of the bipolar membrane (BLCD) or above the limiting current density of the diluate compartment (LCD) decreased current efficiency and increased electrical power dissipation. Electrodialytic acid and base production was approximately10 times cheaper than the chemicals' f.o.b. unit costs as quoted on Alibaba.com. The mechanism and cost of on site peroxodisulfuric acid production by electrolysis of sulfuric acid solutions with boron doped diamond film anodes was investigated experimentally and with molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The cost of on site peroxodisulfate production was approximately 4 times less expensive than purchasing a 25 lb bag. It was shown that direct discharge of sulfate species produces sulfate radicals, which subsequently combined to form peroxodisulfuric acid. The likely hood of these reactions was dependent on electrode surface condition. Sulfate radicals could also be produced in solution by reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated by water discharge.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis; Boron Doped Diamond; Electrosynthesis; Oxidant; Water Resource Managements; Chemical Engineering; Acid and Base
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemical Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Baygents, James C.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleProduction of Expendable Reagents from Raw Waters and Industrial Wastesen_US
dc.creatorDavis, Jake Ryanen_US
dc.contributor.authorDavis, Jake Ryanen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 13-Nov-2016en_US
dc.description.abstractA couple of processes for electrosynthetic production of expendable reagents, namely acids, bases, and oxidants, from the native salt content of raw waters and industrial wastes were investigated, and the composition of mixed acids and bases made of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride salts were predicted using a model predicated on conservation principles, mass action relations, and Pitzer equations. Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (BMED) was used to produce acids and bases in a single pass. Product concentration was limited only by the salt content of the feed water. The current efficiency for acid production was slightly higher than that for base, but neither dropped below 75%. Acid and base current utilization showed the same trends with respect to feed salt content and flow velocity, with higher efficiency at higher feed salt concentrations and flow velocities. Operating the BMED stack near the limiting current density of the bipolar membrane (BLCD) or above the limiting current density of the diluate compartment (LCD) decreased current efficiency and increased electrical power dissipation. Electrodialytic acid and base production was approximately10 times cheaper than the chemicals' f.o.b. unit costs as quoted on Alibaba.com. The mechanism and cost of on site peroxodisulfuric acid production by electrolysis of sulfuric acid solutions with boron doped diamond film anodes was investigated experimentally and with molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The cost of on site peroxodisulfate production was approximately 4 times less expensive than purchasing a 25 lb bag. It was shown that direct discharge of sulfate species produces sulfate radicals, which subsequently combined to form peroxodisulfuric acid. The likely hood of these reactions was dependent on electrode surface condition. Sulfate radicals could also be produced in solution by reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated by water discharge.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectBipolar Membrane Electrodialysisen_US
dc.subjectBoron Doped Diamonden_US
dc.subjectElectrosynthesisen_US
dc.subjectOxidanten_US
dc.subjectWater Resource Managementsen_US
dc.subjectChemical Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectAcid and Baseen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemical Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorBaygents, James C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFarrell, Jamesen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBaygents, James C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberArnold, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberOgden, Kimberlyen_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.