The Mechanism of Allosteric Regulation in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/333219
Title:
The Mechanism of Allosteric Regulation in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase
Author:
Purohit, Rahul
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 01-Feb-2015
Abstract:
Nitric oxide (NO), a reactive diatomic gas and a potent signaling molecule, is required for proper cardiovascular functioning. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heterodimeric heme protein, is the key intracellular NO receptor protein which, upon NO binding, undergoes conformational changes leading to catalysis and the cGMP signaling cascade. Several small molecules that allosterically stimulate sGC have been developed for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, but little is known about their binding site or how they stimulate activity. This dissertation describes experiments designed to uncover the molecular basis for signal transduction in sGC by NO and small molecule stimulators. The crystal structure of the α-subunit PAS domain from Manduca sexta (Ms) sGC was solved at 1.8 Å resolution revealing the expected PAS fold but with an additional β strand and a shorter Fα helix. CO binding measurements on different Ms sGC N-terminal constructs and the β₁ (1-380) construct revealed that the α-subunit keeps the β₁ H-NOX domain in an inhibited conformation and this inhibition is relieved by removal of the α-subunit or by addition of stimulatory compounds such as compound YC-1. Linked-equilibria measurements on the N-terminal constructs show that YC-1 binding affinity is increased in the presence of CO. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on the in-vitro biotinylated constructs showed that YC-1 binds near or directly to the β₁ H-NOX domain. Computational and mutational analysis of the β₁ H-NOX domain revealed a pocket important in allostery and drug action. Finally, we show that the coiled coil domain plays an important role in allosteric regulation of the β₁ H-NOX domain and possibly in signal transduction. Our data are consistent with a model of allosteric activation in which the α-subunit and the coiled coil domains function to keep heme in a low affinity conformation while YC-1 binding to the β₁ H-NOX domain switches heme to a high affinity conformation, and sGC to its high activity form.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase; YC-1; BAY; Chemistry; Soluble Guanylate Cyclase
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemistry
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Montfort, William R.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleThe Mechanism of Allosteric Regulation in Soluble Guanylate Cyclaseen_US
dc.creatorPurohit, Rahulen_US
dc.contributor.authorPurohit, Rahulen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 01-Feb-2015en_US
dc.description.abstractNitric oxide (NO), a reactive diatomic gas and a potent signaling molecule, is required for proper cardiovascular functioning. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heterodimeric heme protein, is the key intracellular NO receptor protein which, upon NO binding, undergoes conformational changes leading to catalysis and the cGMP signaling cascade. Several small molecules that allosterically stimulate sGC have been developed for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, but little is known about their binding site or how they stimulate activity. This dissertation describes experiments designed to uncover the molecular basis for signal transduction in sGC by NO and small molecule stimulators. The crystal structure of the α-subunit PAS domain from Manduca sexta (Ms) sGC was solved at 1.8 Å resolution revealing the expected PAS fold but with an additional β strand and a shorter Fα helix. CO binding measurements on different Ms sGC N-terminal constructs and the β₁ (1-380) construct revealed that the α-subunit keeps the β₁ H-NOX domain in an inhibited conformation and this inhibition is relieved by removal of the α-subunit or by addition of stimulatory compounds such as compound YC-1. Linked-equilibria measurements on the N-terminal constructs show that YC-1 binding affinity is increased in the presence of CO. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on the in-vitro biotinylated constructs showed that YC-1 binds near or directly to the β₁ H-NOX domain. Computational and mutational analysis of the β₁ H-NOX domain revealed a pocket important in allostery and drug action. Finally, we show that the coiled coil domain plays an important role in allosteric regulation of the β₁ H-NOX domain and possibly in signal transduction. Our data are consistent with a model of allosteric activation in which the α-subunit and the coiled coil domains function to keep heme in a low affinity conformation while YC-1 binding to the β₁ H-NOX domain switches heme to a high affinity conformation, and sGC to its high activity form.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectSoluble Guanylyl Cyclaseen_US
dc.subjectYC-1en_US
dc.subjectBAYen_US
dc.subjectChemistryen_US
dc.subjectSoluble Guanylate Cyclaseen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMontfort, William R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMontfort, William R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCordes, Matthew H.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBandarian, Vaheen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHausrath, Andrew C.en_US
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