Engineering the performance of optical devices using plasmonics and nonlinear organic chromophores

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/333214
Title:
Engineering the performance of optical devices using plasmonics and nonlinear organic chromophores
Author:
Shahin, Shiva
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 15-Feb-2015
Abstract:
In this work, two optical devices, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and optical fibers, are introduced. Each of these devices have performance drawbacks. The major drawbacks of organic photovoltaics is their low absorption rate due to bandgap mismatch with the solar spectrum as well as poor charge carrier mobility and short exciton diffusion length. In order to overcome some of these drawbacks and increase the efficiency of OPVs, we use plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We report 30% increase in the efficiency of bulk-heterojunction OPV after incorporation of 50 nm AuNPs. The optical, electrical, and thermal impacts of AuNPs on the performance of PVs have been investigated experimentally and using Lumerical Solutions and COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation packages. The major contributions of AuNPs is causing near field enhancement and increasing the absorption of the structure by 65%, decreasing the extracted carrier density by quenching the excitons, changing the workfunction of the structure, as well as increasing the temperature of their surrounded medium when exited at their plasmon resonance frequency. Furthermore, one of the challenges in devices made from optical fibers such as wavelength division multiplexing systems, is self-phase modulation (SPM) which is a nonlinear phenomenon. We introduce a novel method to remove the SPM in liquid core optical fibers (LCOF) using nonlinear organic chromophores with a negative third-order susceptibility. The idea of this work is to eliminate the effective nonlinear refractive index that the optical pulses are experiencing while propagating through the LCOF. Further, a novel method is introduced to characterize the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of organic chromophores in LCOF system. The presented method is simple, and can be extended to the characterization of other nanoscale particles such as quantum dots and plasmonic metal nanoparticles in solutions. Finally, a convenient method is presented that enables researchers to investigate the mechanisms behind photobleaching of various materials. The photostability of materials is of great importance for their acceptance in commercial systems such as organic photovoltaics, electro-optic (EO) modulators and switches, etc. This method is based on the simultaneous detection of different signals such as second-, and third-harmonic generations as well as two-, and three-photon excitation fluorescence using multi-photon microscopy.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
optical devices; optical fiber; organic materials; plasmonic organic photovoltaics; self-phase modulation; Optical Sciences; nonlinear optics
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Optical Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Norwood, Robert A.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleEngineering the performance of optical devices using plasmonics and nonlinear organic chromophoresen_US
dc.creatorShahin, Shivaen_US
dc.contributor.authorShahin, Shivaen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 15-Feb-2015en_US
dc.description.abstractIn this work, two optical devices, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and optical fibers, are introduced. Each of these devices have performance drawbacks. The major drawbacks of organic photovoltaics is their low absorption rate due to bandgap mismatch with the solar spectrum as well as poor charge carrier mobility and short exciton diffusion length. In order to overcome some of these drawbacks and increase the efficiency of OPVs, we use plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We report 30% increase in the efficiency of bulk-heterojunction OPV after incorporation of 50 nm AuNPs. The optical, electrical, and thermal impacts of AuNPs on the performance of PVs have been investigated experimentally and using Lumerical Solutions and COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation packages. The major contributions of AuNPs is causing near field enhancement and increasing the absorption of the structure by 65%, decreasing the extracted carrier density by quenching the excitons, changing the workfunction of the structure, as well as increasing the temperature of their surrounded medium when exited at their plasmon resonance frequency. Furthermore, one of the challenges in devices made from optical fibers such as wavelength division multiplexing systems, is self-phase modulation (SPM) which is a nonlinear phenomenon. We introduce a novel method to remove the SPM in liquid core optical fibers (LCOF) using nonlinear organic chromophores with a negative third-order susceptibility. The idea of this work is to eliminate the effective nonlinear refractive index that the optical pulses are experiencing while propagating through the LCOF. Further, a novel method is introduced to characterize the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of organic chromophores in LCOF system. The presented method is simple, and can be extended to the characterization of other nanoscale particles such as quantum dots and plasmonic metal nanoparticles in solutions. Finally, a convenient method is presented that enables researchers to investigate the mechanisms behind photobleaching of various materials. The photostability of materials is of great importance for their acceptance in commercial systems such as organic photovoltaics, electro-optic (EO) modulators and switches, etc. This method is based on the simultaneous detection of different signals such as second-, and third-harmonic generations as well as two-, and three-photon excitation fluorescence using multi-photon microscopy.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectoptical devicesen_US
dc.subjectoptical fiberen_US
dc.subjectorganic materialsen_US
dc.subjectplasmonic organic photovoltaicsen_US
dc.subjectself-phase modulationen_US
dc.subjectOptical Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectnonlinear opticsen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineOptical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorNorwood, Robert A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNorwood, Robert A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPeyghambarian, Nasseren_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMansuripur, Masuden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGangopadhyay, Palashen_US
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