Discovery and Development of Novel Ret Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pervasive Malignancies

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/325495
Title:
Discovery and Development of Novel Ret Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pervasive Malignancies
Author:
Frett, Brendan
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 23-Jun-2015
Abstract:
Targeted cancer therapeutics represent the advent of a new therapeutic age, brought forth by the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib (Gleevec®). Imatinib is able to cause complete and sustained remissions in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) driven by the Abelson (ABL) kinase, which caused a massive paradigm shift in how cancer is treated. The following research has been completed to extend the principles of imatinib therapy to the rearranged during transfection (RET) kinase. The RET kinase is involved in driving the pathology of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), certain non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), tamoxifen resistant breast cancer, and Spitz melanoma. A heavily diverse population of solid and liquid carcinomas are driven by the RET oncogene, and patients presenting with these cancers could significantly benefit from a RET inhibitor. Previous drug discovery campaigns identified RET activity after therapeutic development for an unrelated kinase, as the case with vandetanib (Calpresa®) and cabozantinib (Cometriq®). Both agents fail to achieve dominant activity on RET and are more active on the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), yet still achieve efficacy in RET driven tumors. This likely results from interrupting the oncogene cooperation between RET and VEGFR2; VEGFR2 provides the nutrients through angiogenesis that RET requires to promote proliferation and survival. We hypothesized that an equipotent RET/VEGFR2 dual inhibitor could maximize inhibiting the cooperation between RET and VEGFR2 in RET driven cancers. The inhibitor should be developed to maintain activity on all known RET mutations for treatment durability. In that case, the RET oncogene, despite mutating, will always be inhibited. Through research efforts, Pz-1 was identified as a sub-nanomolar, equipotent inhibitor of both RET (IC₅₀<0.001 µM) and VEGFR2 (IC₅₀<0.001 µM). Pz-1 was found active on every known, clinically relevant RET mutant tested at an IC₅₀≤0.001 µM. Through RET-driven xenograft models, Pz-1 was found active at an oral dose as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Pharmaceutical Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Li, Hong-yu

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleDiscovery and Development of Novel Ret Inhibitors for the Treatment of Pervasive Malignanciesen_US
dc.creatorFrett, Brendanen_US
dc.contributor.authorFrett, Brendanen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 23-Jun-2015en_US
dc.description.abstractTargeted cancer therapeutics represent the advent of a new therapeutic age, brought forth by the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib (Gleevec®). Imatinib is able to cause complete and sustained remissions in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) driven by the Abelson (ABL) kinase, which caused a massive paradigm shift in how cancer is treated. The following research has been completed to extend the principles of imatinib therapy to the rearranged during transfection (RET) kinase. The RET kinase is involved in driving the pathology of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), certain non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), tamoxifen resistant breast cancer, and Spitz melanoma. A heavily diverse population of solid and liquid carcinomas are driven by the RET oncogene, and patients presenting with these cancers could significantly benefit from a RET inhibitor. Previous drug discovery campaigns identified RET activity after therapeutic development for an unrelated kinase, as the case with vandetanib (Calpresa®) and cabozantinib (Cometriq®). Both agents fail to achieve dominant activity on RET and are more active on the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), yet still achieve efficacy in RET driven tumors. This likely results from interrupting the oncogene cooperation between RET and VEGFR2; VEGFR2 provides the nutrients through angiogenesis that RET requires to promote proliferation and survival. We hypothesized that an equipotent RET/VEGFR2 dual inhibitor could maximize inhibiting the cooperation between RET and VEGFR2 in RET driven cancers. The inhibitor should be developed to maintain activity on all known RET mutations for treatment durability. In that case, the RET oncogene, despite mutating, will always be inhibited. Through research efforts, Pz-1 was identified as a sub-nanomolar, equipotent inhibitor of both RET (IC₅₀<0.001 µM) and VEGFR2 (IC₅₀<0.001 µM). Pz-1 was found active on every known, clinically relevant RET mutant tested at an IC₅₀≤0.001 µM. Through RET-driven xenograft models, Pz-1 was found active at an oral dose as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectPharmaceutical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmaceutical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorLi, Hong-yuen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLi, Hong-yuen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSun, Daekyuen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChapman, Elien_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMontfort, Williamen_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.