Haboobs in outer space: the when and where of dust storms in distant galaxies

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/323445
Title:
Haboobs in outer space: the when and where of dust storms in distant galaxies
Author:
Penner, Kyle
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 7-Nov-2014
Abstract:
Dust grains are a minor component by mass of the interstellar medium of a galaxy. Yet they can be the dominant source of luminosity. At z ∼ 1, the luminosity density of the Universe in the IR is ∼ 10 times higher than it is at z ∼ 0; common high-redshift galaxies have IR luminosities and dust masses that surpass those of even rare low-redshift galaxies. Dusty galaxies must transition to dust-poor galaxies. In this thesis, we attempt to understand the When? and Where? of this transition. We examine the redshift distribution of the cosmic millimeter background and the spatial distributions of dust in high-redshift galaxies. The cosmic millimeter background is the flux surface density, across the entire sky, from dust emission from all galaxies in the Universe. We stack the 1.16mm flux densities of a sample of dusty galaxies to determine the evolution of their contribution to the background. We resolve ∼ 35% of the background at 1.16mm and ∼ 50% of the background at 850 μm. We make two unique predictions for the redshift origins of the total 1.16mm background. Dust is responsible for more than the IR emission from a galaxy. The existence of dust is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the attenuation of a galaxy's intrinsic UV emission; the IR- and emergent UV-emitting regions must be spatially coincident. We establish a relation between the ratio of infrared to UV luminosity and β for dusty galaxies at z ∼ 2, which implies that their regions are coincident. We also argue that the dust is spread on galactic scales. In dust-poor galaxies at low redshift, the amount of dust attenuating the emission from ionizing stars is greater than the amount attenuating the emission from massive but nonionizing stars. For dusty galaxies at z ∼ 1.3, the amounts may be unequal--though this result is subject to the assumption that high-redshift dusty galaxies have the same spatial and grain size distributions as low-redshift dust-poor galaxies. The dust properties of high-redshift galaxies may be more diverse than they are in low-redshift galaxies.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Astronomy
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Astronomy
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Dickinson, Mark E.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Pope, Alexandra

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleHaboobs in outer space: the when and where of dust storms in distant galaxiesen_US
dc.creatorPenner, Kyleen_US
dc.contributor.authorPenner, Kyleen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 7-Nov-2014en_US
dc.description.abstractDust grains are a minor component by mass of the interstellar medium of a galaxy. Yet they can be the dominant source of luminosity. At z ∼ 1, the luminosity density of the Universe in the IR is ∼ 10 times higher than it is at z ∼ 0; common high-redshift galaxies have IR luminosities and dust masses that surpass those of even rare low-redshift galaxies. Dusty galaxies must transition to dust-poor galaxies. In this thesis, we attempt to understand the When? and Where? of this transition. We examine the redshift distribution of the cosmic millimeter background and the spatial distributions of dust in high-redshift galaxies. The cosmic millimeter background is the flux surface density, across the entire sky, from dust emission from all galaxies in the Universe. We stack the 1.16mm flux densities of a sample of dusty galaxies to determine the evolution of their contribution to the background. We resolve ∼ 35% of the background at 1.16mm and ∼ 50% of the background at 850 μm. We make two unique predictions for the redshift origins of the total 1.16mm background. Dust is responsible for more than the IR emission from a galaxy. The existence of dust is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the attenuation of a galaxy's intrinsic UV emission; the IR- and emergent UV-emitting regions must be spatially coincident. We establish a relation between the ratio of infrared to UV luminosity and β for dusty galaxies at z ∼ 2, which implies that their regions are coincident. We also argue that the dust is spread on galactic scales. In dust-poor galaxies at low redshift, the amount of dust attenuating the emission from ionizing stars is greater than the amount attenuating the emission from massive but nonionizing stars. For dusty galaxies at z ∼ 1.3, the amounts may be unequal--though this result is subject to the assumption that high-redshift dusty galaxies have the same spatial and grain size distributions as low-redshift dust-poor galaxies. The dust properties of high-redshift galaxies may be more diverse than they are in low-redshift galaxies.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectAstronomyen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAstronomyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDickinson, Mark E.en_US
dc.contributor.advisorJannuzi, Buell T.en_US
dc.contributor.advisorPope, Alexandraen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDickinson, Mark E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberJannuzi, Buell T.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPope, Alexandraen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberZaritsky, Dennisen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFan, Xiaohuien_US
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