Effects of Disease-Causing Mutations Associated with Five Bestrophinopathies on the Localization and Oligomerization of Bestrophin-1

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/314121
Title:
Effects of Disease-Causing Mutations Associated with Five Bestrophinopathies on the Localization and Oligomerization of Bestrophin-1
Author:
Johnson, Adiv Adam
Issue Date:
2014
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release 17-Aug-2014
Abstract:
Mutations in BEST1, the gene encoding for Bestrophin-1 (Best1), cause five, clinically distinct inherited retinopathies: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB), autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Little is known regarding how BEST1 mutations cause disease and why mutations cause multiple disease phenotypes. Within the eye, Best1 is a homo-oligomeric, integral membrane protein that is exclusively localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Here, it regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling and putatively mediates anion transport. Since defects in localization and oligomerization are known to underlie other channelopathies, we investigated how mutations causal for BVMD, AVMD, ARB, ADVIRC, and RP impact the localization and oligomerization of Best1. We generated replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding for WT and 31 mutant forms of Best1 associated with these five diseases and expressed them in confluent, polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney and/or RPE cells. Localization was assessed via immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Oligomerization was examined using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as well as reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We report that all 31 BVMD, AVMD, ARB, ADVIRC, and RP mutants tested can reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate with and exhibit comparable FRET efficiencies to WT Best1, indicative of unimpaired oligomerization. While all RP and ADVIRC mutants were properly localized to the basolateral plasma membrane, many but not all AVMD, ARB, and BVMD mutants were mislocalized to intracellular compartments. When co-expressed with WT Best1, mislocalized mutants predominantly co-localized with WT Best1 in intracellular compartments. Studies involving four ARB truncation mutants reveal that the first 174 amino acids are sufficient to mediate oligomerization with WT Best1 and that amino acids 472-585 are not necessary for proper trafficking. We conclude that, although mislocalization is a common result of BEST1 mutation, it is not an absolute feature of any individual bestrophinopathy. Moreover, we show that some recessive mutants mislocalize WT Best1 when co-expressed, indicating that mislocalization cannot, on its own, generate a disease phenotype, and that the absence of Best1 at the plasma membrane is well tolerated.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
fhRPE; Fluorescence resonance energy transfer; MDCK; Retinal pigment epithelium; Vitelliform macular dystrophy; Physiological Sciences; Bestrophin
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Physiological Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Marmorstein, Alan D.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.titleEffects of Disease-Causing Mutations Associated with Five Bestrophinopathies on the Localization and Oligomerization of Bestrophin-1en_US
dc.creatorJohnson, Adiv Adamen_US
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Adiv Adamen_US
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease 17-Aug-2014en_US
dc.description.abstractMutations in BEST1, the gene encoding for Bestrophin-1 (Best1), cause five, clinically distinct inherited retinopathies: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB), autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Little is known regarding how BEST1 mutations cause disease and why mutations cause multiple disease phenotypes. Within the eye, Best1 is a homo-oligomeric, integral membrane protein that is exclusively localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Here, it regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling and putatively mediates anion transport. Since defects in localization and oligomerization are known to underlie other channelopathies, we investigated how mutations causal for BVMD, AVMD, ARB, ADVIRC, and RP impact the localization and oligomerization of Best1. We generated replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding for WT and 31 mutant forms of Best1 associated with these five diseases and expressed them in confluent, polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney and/or RPE cells. Localization was assessed via immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Oligomerization was examined using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as well as reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We report that all 31 BVMD, AVMD, ARB, ADVIRC, and RP mutants tested can reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate with and exhibit comparable FRET efficiencies to WT Best1, indicative of unimpaired oligomerization. While all RP and ADVIRC mutants were properly localized to the basolateral plasma membrane, many but not all AVMD, ARB, and BVMD mutants were mislocalized to intracellular compartments. When co-expressed with WT Best1, mislocalized mutants predominantly co-localized with WT Best1 in intracellular compartments. Studies involving four ARB truncation mutants reveal that the first 174 amino acids are sufficient to mediate oligomerization with WT Best1 and that amino acids 472-585 are not necessary for proper trafficking. We conclude that, although mislocalization is a common result of BEST1 mutation, it is not an absolute feature of any individual bestrophinopathy. Moreover, we show that some recessive mutants mislocalize WT Best1 when co-expressed, indicating that mislocalization cannot, on its own, generate a disease phenotype, and that the absence of Best1 at the plasma membrane is well tolerated.en_US
dc.typetexten
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen
dc.subjectfhRPEen_US
dc.subjectFluorescence resonance energy transferen_US
dc.subjectMDCKen_US
dc.subjectRetinal pigment epitheliumen_US
dc.subjectVitelliform macular dystrophyen_US
dc.subjectPhysiological Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectBestrophinen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePhysiological Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMarmorstein, Alan D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMarmorstein, Alan D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLynch, Ronald M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDelamere, Nicholas A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBoitano, Scotten_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStamer, W. Danielen_US
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