Bioadsorption of Copper (II) By Chlorella Sp. Biomass: Continuous Process with Cost Analysis and Comsol Model Simulations

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/307004
Title:
Bioadsorption of Copper (II) By Chlorella Sp. Biomass: Continuous Process with Cost Analysis and Comsol Model Simulations
Author:
Jones, Lisa A.
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
With the continuous improvement in knowledge and health risks associated with heavy metal expulsion, government environmental agencies are continuously reducing the legal disposal limits. However, the demand for items like IPods or energy-efficient appliances containing heavy metal like copper is on the rise. Whether from commercial or residential areas, heavy metals are known to have toxic effects on humans, animals, and/or ecosystems; hence, their removal is necessary part of preserving our environment. With the rising cost of natural resources, biological species have proven to be viable alternatives in the jet fuel and biodiesel industries. Algal biomass is widely considered economical because of its renewable, biodegradable, noncompetitive, and nontoxic properties. Currently, algae are being grown on waste water for the lipid; this research involves taking the left over or lipid-extracted algae (LEA) for utilization as a biosorbant to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Down selection via batch processes showed that Chlorella sorokianna and its associated lipid-extracted algae (LEA) demonstrated similar adsorption capacities of copper (II) as three current-in-use ion exchange resins. A feasibility study proved that the LEA was an economically realistic means to remove copper (II) from effluent. The LEA biomass is capable of a maximum adsorption of 14.36 ± 0.27 mg of copper (II) per gram of dry biomass for six regeneration, sorption-desorption, cycles with nitric acid. Using SEM and FTIR, the LEA is capable of ion exchange electrostatic interaction with various surface sites of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and metal groups. Next, the batch process was used to fabricate a lab-scale continuous column process much like ion exchange or activated carbon columns in a waste water treatment plant. Using the continuous systems' kinetics and cycle life, a cost analysis was performed on a plant scale column to reduce copper (II) in wastewater for recovery at a later date, which would yield cost saving over the life of columns. To install three LEA columns prior to ion exchange in a waste water treatment plant, the total capital expense is $1.03 million for a one year time line. The bidirectional flow columns are meant as pretreatment prior to ion exchange columns. The LEA columns provide a waste water treatment plant a sustainable, greener and cheaper alternative to offset costs associated with purifying waste water.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
bioadsorption; COMSOL; copper (II); Lipid Extracted Algae; waste water; Chemical Engineering; Algal biomass
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemical Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Ogden, Kimberly L.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleBioadsorption of Copper (II) By Chlorella Sp. Biomass: Continuous Process with Cost Analysis and Comsol Model Simulationsen_US
dc.creatorJones, Lisa A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJones, Lisa A.en_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractWith the continuous improvement in knowledge and health risks associated with heavy metal expulsion, government environmental agencies are continuously reducing the legal disposal limits. However, the demand for items like IPods or energy-efficient appliances containing heavy metal like copper is on the rise. Whether from commercial or residential areas, heavy metals are known to have toxic effects on humans, animals, and/or ecosystems; hence, their removal is necessary part of preserving our environment. With the rising cost of natural resources, biological species have proven to be viable alternatives in the jet fuel and biodiesel industries. Algal biomass is widely considered economical because of its renewable, biodegradable, noncompetitive, and nontoxic properties. Currently, algae are being grown on waste water for the lipid; this research involves taking the left over or lipid-extracted algae (LEA) for utilization as a biosorbant to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Down selection via batch processes showed that Chlorella sorokianna and its associated lipid-extracted algae (LEA) demonstrated similar adsorption capacities of copper (II) as three current-in-use ion exchange resins. A feasibility study proved that the LEA was an economically realistic means to remove copper (II) from effluent. The LEA biomass is capable of a maximum adsorption of 14.36 ± 0.27 mg of copper (II) per gram of dry biomass for six regeneration, sorption-desorption, cycles with nitric acid. Using SEM and FTIR, the LEA is capable of ion exchange electrostatic interaction with various surface sites of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and metal groups. Next, the batch process was used to fabricate a lab-scale continuous column process much like ion exchange or activated carbon columns in a waste water treatment plant. Using the continuous systems' kinetics and cycle life, a cost analysis was performed on a plant scale column to reduce copper (II) in wastewater for recovery at a later date, which would yield cost saving over the life of columns. To install three LEA columns prior to ion exchange in a waste water treatment plant, the total capital expense is $1.03 million for a one year time line. The bidirectional flow columns are meant as pretreatment prior to ion exchange columns. The LEA columns provide a waste water treatment plant a sustainable, greener and cheaper alternative to offset costs associated with purifying waste water.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectbioadsorptionen_US
dc.subjectCOMSOLen_US
dc.subjectcopper (II)en_US
dc.subjectLipid Extracted Algaeen_US
dc.subjectwaste wateren_US
dc.subjectChemical Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectAlgal biomassen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemical Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorOgden, Kimberly L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberOgden, Kimberly L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberShadman, Farhangen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSorooshian, Arminen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChorover, Jonathan D.en_US
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