Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/306468
Title:
Water Harvesting in Arid Lands
Author:
Cluff, C. Brent
Affiliation:
Water Resources Research Center
Issue Date:
Oct-1987
Description:
Paper Presented at the Kuwait Symposium on Management and Technology of Water Resources in Arid Zones, Kuwait, October 5-7, 1987.
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/306468
Abstract:
The use of water harvesting systems in arid lands offers the potential of making lands productive that are now largely unusable due to lack of water for domestic livestock or agricultural use. As long as there is rainfall a water harvesting system can be designed to collect that rainfall and store it until it can be used for beneficial use. The water harvesting system consists of a catchment and a storage facility. If the water is to be used for agriculture it would also include an agricultural area. The agricultural area could be located within the catchment area or in a separate nearby area. Many different treatments have been tested for use in catchment construction. These treatments increase the runoff by decreasing the permeability of the surface and or reducing the time the water stays on the surface or amount of water trapped on the surface. A list of the more promising treatments in order of their increasing cost, are: (1) Shaped compacted-earth; (2) sodium-treated shaped compacted-earth; (3) wax-treated shaped compacted-earth; (4) gravel-covered plastic; (5) fiberglass-asphalt chipcoated; (6) asphalt-plastic-asphalt chipcoated; (7) rubberized-asphalt chipcoated; and (8) reinforced-mortar-covered plastic. The use of compartmented reservoirs make storage of water more efficient. Evaporation and in some cases seepage losses are reduced using the compartmented reservoir by keeping the water concentrated into a volume with as small a surface area as possible. This method of storage when combined with the collection of runoff from a natural surface or with one that is inexpensively treated makes it practical to provide water for supplemental irrigation. This combination is called a water harvesting agrisystem. Concentration of water in a compartmented reservoir can be accomplished in flat terrain using a pump. If the water is being used at a fast enough rate concentration can also be accomplished by selective removal. Alternatively with topography of a sufficient grade, concentration can be accomplished by gravity. Evaporation control on the compartmented reservoir can be improved by placing an evaporation control barrier on the "last" compartment, the one in which water is concentrated and has water in it the longest time. This enhances the value of the evaporation control barrier and increases the dependable water supply. A computer model has been developed to help in the design of the water harvesting systems including agrisystems with compartmented reservoirs. This program fits on portable personal computers and can thus be taken by the designer to a field location to develop an optimum design at a minimum cost. The model can be improved through calibration in a given area as systems are installed and data collected.
Language:
en_US

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorCluff, C. Brenten_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-12-06T23:52:50Z-
dc.date.available2013-12-06T23:52:50Z-
dc.date.issued1987-10-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/306468-
dc.descriptionPaper Presented at the Kuwait Symposium on Management and Technology of Water Resources in Arid Zones, Kuwait, October 5-7, 1987.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe use of water harvesting systems in arid lands offers the potential of making lands productive that are now largely unusable due to lack of water for domestic livestock or agricultural use. As long as there is rainfall a water harvesting system can be designed to collect that rainfall and store it until it can be used for beneficial use. The water harvesting system consists of a catchment and a storage facility. If the water is to be used for agriculture it would also include an agricultural area. The agricultural area could be located within the catchment area or in a separate nearby area. Many different treatments have been tested for use in catchment construction. These treatments increase the runoff by decreasing the permeability of the surface and or reducing the time the water stays on the surface or amount of water trapped on the surface. A list of the more promising treatments in order of their increasing cost, are: (1) Shaped compacted-earth; (2) sodium-treated shaped compacted-earth; (3) wax-treated shaped compacted-earth; (4) gravel-covered plastic; (5) fiberglass-asphalt chipcoated; (6) asphalt-plastic-asphalt chipcoated; (7) rubberized-asphalt chipcoated; and (8) reinforced-mortar-covered plastic. The use of compartmented reservoirs make storage of water more efficient. Evaporation and in some cases seepage losses are reduced using the compartmented reservoir by keeping the water concentrated into a volume with as small a surface area as possible. This method of storage when combined with the collection of runoff from a natural surface or with one that is inexpensively treated makes it practical to provide water for supplemental irrigation. This combination is called a water harvesting agrisystem. Concentration of water in a compartmented reservoir can be accomplished in flat terrain using a pump. If the water is being used at a fast enough rate concentration can also be accomplished by selective removal. Alternatively with topography of a sufficient grade, concentration can be accomplished by gravity. Evaporation control on the compartmented reservoir can be improved by placing an evaporation control barrier on the "last" compartment, the one in which water is concentrated and has water in it the longest time. This enhances the value of the evaporation control barrier and increases the dependable water supply. A computer model has been developed to help in the design of the water harvesting systems including agrisystems with compartmented reservoirs. This program fits on portable personal computers and can thus be taken by the designer to a field location to develop an optimum design at a minimum cost. The model can be improved through calibration in a given area as systems are installed and data collected.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.sourceWater Resources Research Center. The University of Arizona.en_US
dc.titleWater Harvesting in Arid Landsen_US
dc.contributor.departmentWater Resources Research Centeren_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item is part of the Water Resources Research Center collection. It was digitized from a physical copy provided by the Water Resources Research Center at The University of Arizona. For more information about items in this collection, please contact the Center, (520) 621-9591 or see http://wrrc.arizona.edu.en_US
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