Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Nrf2: Novel Mechanisms beyond Keap1

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/301750
Title:
Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Nrf2: Novel Mechanisms beyond Keap1
Author:
Wu, Tongde
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 04-Aug-2015
Abstract:
Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of downstream genes that contain the antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoter regions, including intracellular redox-balancing proteins, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and transporters. These Nrf2-dependent proteins work in collaboration to protect against many diseases where oxidative stress plays an essential role in disease onset and progression. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the basic molecular mechanisms of how Nrf2 is regulated so that this pathway can be targeted for disease prevention and treatment.Nrf2 is mainly regulated at the protein level by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Under basal conditions Nrf2 is constantly ubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Currently, regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by ubiquitination is largely understood. However, other mechanism responsible for modulating Nrf2-ARE signal remains to be explored. This dissertation identifies three molecular mechanisms that are important in understanding how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated: (i) In Chapter 2, KPNA6 was identified and characterized as a negative regulatory mechanism of the Nrf2 pathway, which mediates Keap1 nuclear import and represses the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response at post-induction phase. (ii) In Chapter 3, I identified PARP-1 as a new transcription co-activator of Nrf2, which augments ARE-specific DNA binding of Nrf2 and enhances the transcription of Nrf2 target genes. This indicates a novel function of PARP-1 and reveals another layer of regulation of Nrf2. (iii) In Chapter 4, I demonstrated that XBP1 and SYVN1 are involved in regulating the Nrf2 pathway in a Keap1-independent mechanism. During ER stress, XBP1s upregulates transcription of SYVN1, which is an ubiquitin E3 ligase. SYVN1 accelerates the clearance of Nrf2 protein through promoting ubiquitination of Nrf2, and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Moreover, we observed an inverse correlation between XBP1s/SYVN1 and Nrf2 expression in the end stage alcoholic cirrhosis liver samples, implying a pathological role of ER stress-oxidative stress crosstalk. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated, providing novel targets of chemoprevention or chemotherapy.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Pharmacology & Toxicology
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Pharmacology & Toxicology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Zhang, Donna D.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titlePost-Transcriptional Regulation of Nrf2: Novel Mechanisms beyond Keap1en_US
dc.creatorWu, Tongdeen_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Tongdeen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 04-Aug-2015en_US
dc.description.abstractNrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of downstream genes that contain the antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoter regions, including intracellular redox-balancing proteins, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and transporters. These Nrf2-dependent proteins work in collaboration to protect against many diseases where oxidative stress plays an essential role in disease onset and progression. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the basic molecular mechanisms of how Nrf2 is regulated so that this pathway can be targeted for disease prevention and treatment.Nrf2 is mainly regulated at the protein level by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Under basal conditions Nrf2 is constantly ubiquitinated by the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Currently, regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway by ubiquitination is largely understood. However, other mechanism responsible for modulating Nrf2-ARE signal remains to be explored. This dissertation identifies three molecular mechanisms that are important in understanding how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated: (i) In Chapter 2, KPNA6 was identified and characterized as a negative regulatory mechanism of the Nrf2 pathway, which mediates Keap1 nuclear import and represses the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response at post-induction phase. (ii) In Chapter 3, I identified PARP-1 as a new transcription co-activator of Nrf2, which augments ARE-specific DNA binding of Nrf2 and enhances the transcription of Nrf2 target genes. This indicates a novel function of PARP-1 and reveals another layer of regulation of Nrf2. (iii) In Chapter 4, I demonstrated that XBP1 and SYVN1 are involved in regulating the Nrf2 pathway in a Keap1-independent mechanism. During ER stress, XBP1s upregulates transcription of SYVN1, which is an ubiquitin E3 ligase. SYVN1 accelerates the clearance of Nrf2 protein through promoting ubiquitination of Nrf2, and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Moreover, we observed an inverse correlation between XBP1s/SYVN1 and Nrf2 expression in the end stage alcoholic cirrhosis liver samples, implying a pathological role of ER stress-oxidative stress crosstalk. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of how the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is regulated, providing novel targets of chemoprevention or chemotherapy.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectPharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorZhang, Donna D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGandolfi, A. Jayen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCherrington, Nathanen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChen, Qin M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWondrak, Georgeen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberZhang, Donna D.en_US
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