Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxide Releasing Prodrugs

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/301748
Title:
Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxide Releasing Prodrugs
Author:
Bharadwaj, Gaurav
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Embargo:
Release after 01-Aug-2014
Abstract:
The main goals of this research were to synthesize nitrogen oxide releasing diazeniumdiolates and their prodrugs and to evaluate their pharmacological effects. The different projects and their results are described below. i. Comparison of HNO and NO donating properties of cyclic amine diazeniumdiolates Diazeniumdiolates are an attractive class of donor compounds as they can be tuned to release NO or both NO and HNO depending upon the amine backbone. Isopropylamine (IPA/NO) and cyclohexylamine (CHA/NO) diazeniumdiolates are currently the only examples of primary amine based diazeniumdiolates. A series of structurally related cyclic amine based diazeniumdiolates were synthesized and characterized. An acetoxymethyl derivative was also synthesized to facilitate cellular uptake and to achieve higher HNO levels in cells. ii. Nitrogen oxide releasing diazeiumdiolate based adducts of N-des-methyl-tamoxifen Nitrogen oxide (NO/HNO) donating diazeniumdiolate adducts of N-desmethyltamoxifen (a key metabolite of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen) were synthesized. DEA/NO-AcOM, an NO donor was also synthesized to monitor the effect of NO on breast cancer cell survival. Derivatives of N-desmethyltamoxifen were found to be effective towards estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells only. DEA/NO-AcOM was found to be cytotoxic towards estrogen-dependent and independent cell lines, in combination with tamoxifen, or by itself. iii. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen oxide adducts with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Our group has shown HNO releasing diazeniumdiolate derivatized aspirin to be comparably effective in preventing gastric ulceration to NO-releasing diazeniumdiolate based aspirin analogues. Series of such NSAID adducts were further extended by synthesizing such derivatives of indomethacin and niflumic acid. NO/HNO releasing analogues of aspirin and indomethacin were cytotoxic towards two different breast cancer cell lines, irrespective of estrogen dependence.iv. Chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NOChlorambucil, an alkylating agent is used in leukemia treatment. Tumor cells resistant to alkylating agents often have increased glutathione levels and increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). PABA/NO is an NO donor with a promising anticancer profile. The chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NO was synthesized to utilize GST for releasing NO and to potentially overcome cellular resistance.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
cyclic amine diazeniumdiolates; Nitric oxide; Nitroxyl; NSAIDs; Tamoxifen; Chemistry; Chlorambucil
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Chemistry
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Miranda, Katrina M.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleSynthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Nitrogen Oxide Releasing Prodrugsen_US
dc.creatorBharadwaj, Gauraven_US
dc.contributor.authorBharadwaj, Gauraven_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.releaseRelease after 01-Aug-2014en_US
dc.description.abstractThe main goals of this research were to synthesize nitrogen oxide releasing diazeniumdiolates and their prodrugs and to evaluate their pharmacological effects. The different projects and their results are described below. i. Comparison of HNO and NO donating properties of cyclic amine diazeniumdiolates Diazeniumdiolates are an attractive class of donor compounds as they can be tuned to release NO or both NO and HNO depending upon the amine backbone. Isopropylamine (IPA/NO) and cyclohexylamine (CHA/NO) diazeniumdiolates are currently the only examples of primary amine based diazeniumdiolates. A series of structurally related cyclic amine based diazeniumdiolates were synthesized and characterized. An acetoxymethyl derivative was also synthesized to facilitate cellular uptake and to achieve higher HNO levels in cells. ii. Nitrogen oxide releasing diazeiumdiolate based adducts of N-des-methyl-tamoxifen Nitrogen oxide (NO/HNO) donating diazeniumdiolate adducts of N-desmethyltamoxifen (a key metabolite of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen) were synthesized. DEA/NO-AcOM, an NO donor was also synthesized to monitor the effect of NO on breast cancer cell survival. Derivatives of N-desmethyltamoxifen were found to be effective towards estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells only. DEA/NO-AcOM was found to be cytotoxic towards estrogen-dependent and independent cell lines, in combination with tamoxifen, or by itself. iii. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen oxide adducts with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Our group has shown HNO releasing diazeniumdiolate derivatized aspirin to be comparably effective in preventing gastric ulceration to NO-releasing diazeniumdiolate based aspirin analogues. Series of such NSAID adducts were further extended by synthesizing such derivatives of indomethacin and niflumic acid. NO/HNO releasing analogues of aspirin and indomethacin were cytotoxic towards two different breast cancer cell lines, irrespective of estrogen dependence.iv. Chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NOChlorambucil, an alkylating agent is used in leukemia treatment. Tumor cells resistant to alkylating agents often have increased glutathione levels and increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). PABA/NO is an NO donor with a promising anticancer profile. The chlorambucil analogue of PABA/NO was synthesized to utilize GST for releasing NO and to potentially overcome cellular resistance.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectcyclic amine diazeniumdiolatesen_US
dc.subjectNitric oxideen_US
dc.subjectNitroxylen_US
dc.subjectNSAIDsen_US
dc.subjectTamoxifenen_US
dc.subjectChemistryen_US
dc.subjectChlorambucilen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMiranda, Katrina M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWalker, F. Annen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGlass, Richarden_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChristie, Hamishen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMiranda, Katrina M.en_US
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