Long-Term Stabilization of Arsenic-Bearing Solid Residuals under Landfill Conditions

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/301550
Title:
Long-Term Stabilization of Arsenic-Bearing Solid Residuals under Landfill Conditions
Author:
Raghav, Madhumitha
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water was reduced to 10 parts per billion in 2006 by the USEPA. As a result, approximately 10,000 tons of arsenic-bearing residuals (ABSRs) are estimated to be generated every year from water treatment processes. It has also been established that the standard Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), underestimates arsenic leaching from ABSRs, particularly under mature, mixed solid waste landfill conditions. This makes it critical to investigate stabilization technologies that would ensure long-term stability of arsenic residuals after disposal. Arsenic is ubiquitously associated with iron oxides in natural environments as well as water treatment residuals. Hence, knowledge of iron oxide transformations under landfill conditions is critical to understanding the fate and mobility of the associated arsenic. In this work, the effect of high local Fe(II) concentrations on ferrihydrite transformation pathways was studied. Magnetite was the sole transformation product in the presence of high local Fe(II) concentrations. In the absence of high Fe(II) concentrations, goethite was the major transformation product along with minor quantities of magnetite. These results have implications for arsenic mobility from ABSRs since goethite and magnetite have different arsenic sorption capacities and mechanisms. Two technologies were investigated for the stabilization of ABSRs - Arsenic Crystallization Technology (ACT) and Microencapsulation. The strategy for ACT was to convert ABSRs into minerals with a high arsenic capacity and long-term stability under landfill conditions. Scorodite, arsenate hydroxyapatites, ferrous arsenate, arsenated schwertmannite, tooeleite and silica-amended tooeleite, were synthesized and evaluated for their potential to serve as arsenic sinks using TCLP and a simulated landfill leachate test. Ferrous arsenate type solids and arsenated schwertmannite showed most promise in terms of low arsenic leachability and favorable synthesis conditions. Microencapsulation involved coating arsenic-loaded ferrihydrite with a mineral having high stability under landfill conditions. Based on results from a previous study, vivianite was investigated as a potential encapsulant for ABSRs. A modified version of the TCLP was used to evaluate the effectiveness of microencapsulation. Although vivianite did not prove to be a promising encapsulant, our efforts offer useful insights for the development of a successful microencapsulation technology for arsenic stabilization.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Ferrous Arsenate; Iron oxides; Landfills; Microencapsulation; Vivianite; Environmental Engineering; Arsenic
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Environmental Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Ela, Wendell P.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleLong-Term Stabilization of Arsenic-Bearing Solid Residuals under Landfill Conditionsen_US
dc.creatorRaghav, Madhumithaen_US
dc.contributor.authorRaghav, Madhumithaen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water was reduced to 10 parts per billion in 2006 by the USEPA. As a result, approximately 10,000 tons of arsenic-bearing residuals (ABSRs) are estimated to be generated every year from water treatment processes. It has also been established that the standard Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), underestimates arsenic leaching from ABSRs, particularly under mature, mixed solid waste landfill conditions. This makes it critical to investigate stabilization technologies that would ensure long-term stability of arsenic residuals after disposal. Arsenic is ubiquitously associated with iron oxides in natural environments as well as water treatment residuals. Hence, knowledge of iron oxide transformations under landfill conditions is critical to understanding the fate and mobility of the associated arsenic. In this work, the effect of high local Fe(II) concentrations on ferrihydrite transformation pathways was studied. Magnetite was the sole transformation product in the presence of high local Fe(II) concentrations. In the absence of high Fe(II) concentrations, goethite was the major transformation product along with minor quantities of magnetite. These results have implications for arsenic mobility from ABSRs since goethite and magnetite have different arsenic sorption capacities and mechanisms. Two technologies were investigated for the stabilization of ABSRs - Arsenic Crystallization Technology (ACT) and Microencapsulation. The strategy for ACT was to convert ABSRs into minerals with a high arsenic capacity and long-term stability under landfill conditions. Scorodite, arsenate hydroxyapatites, ferrous arsenate, arsenated schwertmannite, tooeleite and silica-amended tooeleite, were synthesized and evaluated for their potential to serve as arsenic sinks using TCLP and a simulated landfill leachate test. Ferrous arsenate type solids and arsenated schwertmannite showed most promise in terms of low arsenic leachability and favorable synthesis conditions. Microencapsulation involved coating arsenic-loaded ferrihydrite with a mineral having high stability under landfill conditions. Based on results from a previous study, vivianite was investigated as a potential encapsulant for ABSRs. A modified version of the TCLP was used to evaluate the effectiveness of microencapsulation. Although vivianite did not prove to be a promising encapsulant, our efforts offer useful insights for the development of a successful microencapsulation technology for arsenic stabilization.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectFerrous Arsenateen_US
dc.subjectIron oxidesen_US
dc.subjectLandfillsen_US
dc.subjectMicroencapsulationen_US
dc.subjectVivianiteen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectArsenicen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEnvironmental Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorEla, Wendell P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSáez, Avelino Eduardoen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFarrell, Jamesen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChorover, Jonen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberEla, Wendell P.en_US
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