Assessment of the Effects of Whole Body and Regional Soft Tissue Composition on Bone Strength and Development in Females

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/301501
Title:
Assessment of the Effects of Whole Body and Regional Soft Tissue Composition on Bone Strength and Development in Females
Author:
Laddu, Deepika R.
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a major public health concern with origins in childhood and is potentially linked to childhood obesity. This study used novel approaches in bone imaging to characterize skeletal development in girls and to assess the influence of whole body and regional soft tissue composition on bone material, structural and geometric properties, the primary determinants of bone strength, controlling for important covariates such as maturation, diet and physical activity. Prospective analyses were conducted to assess associations between measures of total body fat (TBFM) and android fat masses (AFM) and skeletal muscle fat (SMF) content on bone mineral content, density and strength. The results showed that higher TBFM and AFM were inversely associated with changes in cortical bone sites of the femur and tibia. These findings suggest that gains in abdominal adiposity during the pre- and early- pubertal years may contribute to suboptimal bone development and skeletal fragility later in life. The analyses also showed inverse associations between baseline muscle density of the thigh and calf with 2-year changes in bone strength and bone density of the metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. This paradoxical relationship between SMF and bone outcomes was explained by subsequent analyses showing that girls exhibiting larger gains in muscle density experienced larger increases in bone density and strength compared to girls who did not significantly increase muscle density. These findings suggest that fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle contributes to suboptimal bone development in peri-pubertal girls. Further longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine the individual effects of the muscle-bone unit components on 2-year changes in bone strength. These results showed that muscle size contributed to gains in bone strength, independent of its mechanostat effect on BMC. These results underscore the importance of muscle size for promoting bone development and bone strength during growth. A final set of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of dietary fatty acids on bone development. The results of these analyses suggest that while decreasing intakes of AA n-6 FA may benefit bone health, higher intakes n-3 FAs may benefit tibia bone density development in young girls.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
childhood obesity; peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); regional adiposity; soft tissue composition; Nutritional Sciences; bone development
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Nutritional Sciences
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Going, Scott B.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleAssessment of the Effects of Whole Body and Regional Soft Tissue Composition on Bone Strength and Development in Femalesen_US
dc.creatorLaddu, Deepika R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLaddu, Deepika R.en_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractOsteoporosis is a major public health concern with origins in childhood and is potentially linked to childhood obesity. This study used novel approaches in bone imaging to characterize skeletal development in girls and to assess the influence of whole body and regional soft tissue composition on bone material, structural and geometric properties, the primary determinants of bone strength, controlling for important covariates such as maturation, diet and physical activity. Prospective analyses were conducted to assess associations between measures of total body fat (TBFM) and android fat masses (AFM) and skeletal muscle fat (SMF) content on bone mineral content, density and strength. The results showed that higher TBFM and AFM were inversely associated with changes in cortical bone sites of the femur and tibia. These findings suggest that gains in abdominal adiposity during the pre- and early- pubertal years may contribute to suboptimal bone development and skeletal fragility later in life. The analyses also showed inverse associations between baseline muscle density of the thigh and calf with 2-year changes in bone strength and bone density of the metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. This paradoxical relationship between SMF and bone outcomes was explained by subsequent analyses showing that girls exhibiting larger gains in muscle density experienced larger increases in bone density and strength compared to girls who did not significantly increase muscle density. These findings suggest that fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle contributes to suboptimal bone development in peri-pubertal girls. Further longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine the individual effects of the muscle-bone unit components on 2-year changes in bone strength. These results showed that muscle size contributed to gains in bone strength, independent of its mechanostat effect on BMC. These results underscore the importance of muscle size for promoting bone development and bone strength during growth. A final set of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of dietary fatty acids on bone development. The results of these analyses suggest that while decreasing intakes of AA n-6 FA may benefit bone health, higher intakes n-3 FAs may benefit tibia bone density development in young girls.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectchildhood obesityen_US
dc.subjectperipheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)en_US
dc.subjectregional adiposityen_US
dc.subjectsoft tissue compositionen_US
dc.subjectNutritional Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectbone developmenten_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineNutritional Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorGoing, Scott B.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHoutkooper, Lindaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberThomson, Cynthiaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStump, Craigen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGoing, Scott B.en_US
All Items in UA Campus Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.