Holographic Spectrum-Splitting Optical Systems for Solar Photovoltaics

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/301498
Title:
Holographic Spectrum-Splitting Optical Systems for Solar Photovoltaics
Author:
Zhang, Deming
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle-wavelength selective filters that can function as ultra-light-trapping filters. Results from an experimental reflection hologram are used to model the absorption enhancement factor for a silicon solar cell and light-trapping filter. The result shows a significant improvement in current generation for thin-film silicon solar cells under typical operating conditions.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
light trapping; solar energy; spectrum splitting; Electrical & Computer Engineering; holographic optical component
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Electrical & Computer Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Kostuk, Raymond K.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleHolographic Spectrum-Splitting Optical Systems for Solar Photovoltaicsen_US
dc.creatorZhang, Demingen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Demingen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSolar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle-wavelength selective filters that can function as ultra-light-trapping filters. Results from an experimental reflection hologram are used to model the absorption enhancement factor for a silicon solar cell and light-trapping filter. The result shows a significant improvement in current generation for thin-film silicon solar cells under typical operating conditions.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectlight trappingen_US
dc.subjectsolar energyen_US
dc.subjectspectrum splittingen_US
dc.subjectElectrical & Computer Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectholographic optical componenten_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineElectrical & Computer Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorKostuk, Raymond K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMelde, Kathleen L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPotter, Kelly S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGehm, Michael E.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKostuk, Raymond K.en_US
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