Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/300131
Title:
Use and Abuse of Southwestern Rivers: The Desert Farmer
Author:
Ayres, J. E.
Affiliation:
Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson
Issue Date:
23-Apr-1971
Rights:
Copyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection Information:
This article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact anashydrology@gmail.com.
Publisher:
Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science
Journal:
Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest
Abstract:
The pre-Columbian Hohokam Indians occupied the major river drainages of central Arizona, and have been the subject of much intense archaeological research. Evidence indicates that the Hohokam began using river water for crop irrigation about 300 B.C., and modified and improved their irrigation systems over time, until the maximum extent of these systems was achieved about 900 a. D. Two types of water control seem to have been utilized: (1) the direct exploitation of rivers through the use of irrigation canals, (2) indirect use through controlled runoff within microdrainages at higher elevations before it reached the rivers. At first, probably only those parcels of land with optimal soils and drainage were used, but apparently population increases fostered by agriculture itself, combined with increasing social and political complexity, necessitated more and more exploitation of marginal lands. Eventually soil problems increased, imposing severe limitations on agriculture. These involved salt and alkali accumulation due to inadequate drainage, soil density and water logging. Additionally, the extension of cropping required the clearing of natural vegetation, which resulted in increased erosion and decreased available native food resources for periods when crops failed. The culture vanished completely about 1450 a. D., probably mainly because of their manner of river exploitation for irrigation. More recent archaeological studies are concentrating not only on river use but also on river abuse.
Keywords:
Water resources development -- Arizona.; Hydrology -- Arizona.; Hydrology -- Southwestern states.; Water resources development -- Southwestern states.; History; Arid lands; Arizona; Irrigation practices; Soil properties; Soil environment; Soil texture; Saline soils; Arroyos; River basins; Microenvironment; Crops; Agriculture; Irrigation canals; Irrigation systems; Environmental effects; Archaeology; Prehistoric water exploitation
ISSN:
0272-6106

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleUse and Abuse of Southwestern Rivers: The Desert Farmeren_US
dc.contributor.authorAyres, J. E.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentArizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucsonen_US
dc.date.issued1971-04-23-
dc.rightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact anashydrology@gmail.com.en_US
dc.publisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Scienceen_US
dc.identifier.journalHydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwesten_US
dc.description.abstractThe pre-Columbian Hohokam Indians occupied the major river drainages of central Arizona, and have been the subject of much intense archaeological research. Evidence indicates that the Hohokam began using river water for crop irrigation about 300 B.C., and modified and improved their irrigation systems over time, until the maximum extent of these systems was achieved about 900 a. D. Two types of water control seem to have been utilized: (1) the direct exploitation of rivers through the use of irrigation canals, (2) indirect use through controlled runoff within microdrainages at higher elevations before it reached the rivers. At first, probably only those parcels of land with optimal soils and drainage were used, but apparently population increases fostered by agriculture itself, combined with increasing social and political complexity, necessitated more and more exploitation of marginal lands. Eventually soil problems increased, imposing severe limitations on agriculture. These involved salt and alkali accumulation due to inadequate drainage, soil density and water logging. Additionally, the extension of cropping required the clearing of natural vegetation, which resulted in increased erosion and decreased available native food resources for periods when crops failed. The culture vanished completely about 1450 a. D., probably mainly because of their manner of river exploitation for irrigation. More recent archaeological studies are concentrating not only on river use but also on river abuse.en_US
dc.subjectWater resources development -- Arizona.en_US
dc.subjectHydrology -- Arizona.en_US
dc.subjectHydrology -- Southwestern states.en_US
dc.subjectWater resources development -- Southwestern states.en_US
dc.subjectHistoryen_US
dc.subjectArid landsen_US
dc.subjectArizonaen_US
dc.subjectIrrigation practicesen_US
dc.subjectSoil propertiesen_US
dc.subjectSoil environmenten_US
dc.subjectSoil textureen_US
dc.subjectSaline soilsen_US
dc.subjectArroyosen_US
dc.subjectRiver basinsen_US
dc.subjectMicroenvironmenten_US
dc.subjectCropsen_US
dc.subjectAgricultureen_US
dc.subjectIrrigation canalsen_US
dc.subjectIrrigation systemsen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental effectsen_US
dc.subjectArchaeologyen_US
dc.subjectPrehistoric water exploitationen_US
dc.identifier.issn0272-6106-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/300131-
dc.identifier.journalHydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwesten_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeProceedingsen_US
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