Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/300118
Title:
The Use of Chemical Hydrographs in Groundwater Quality Studies
Author:
Schmidt, Kenneth D.
Affiliation:
Harshbarger and Associates, Tucson, Arizona
Issue Date:
23-Apr-1971
Rights:
Copyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.
Collection Information:
This article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact anashydrology@gmail.com.
Publisher:
Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science
Journal:
Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest
Abstract:
High nitrates in drinking water are significant in relation to an infant disease, methemoglobinemia, and the U.S. public health service has set a limit of 45 ppm for human consumption. This paper illustrates how chemical hydrographs were used in a study of nitrates in the groundwater of the Fresno-Clovis metropolitan area (F.C.M.A.) of semiarid central California. The area comprises about 145 square miles, with a population of 310,000. Urban water use is entirely derived from wells, whereas the surrounding agriculture relies on surface and ground water. In 1965, the California department of water resources noted nitrate concentrations in the F.C.M.A. were exceeding the safe limit. A number of sources of error in chemical analyses of water quality are noted. A measure of the accuracies of analyses and a method of double-checking anomalous results is furnished by plotting chemical hydrographs of individual wells. Seasonal changes in nitrate were consistent for many parts of the area, and were related to hydrogeologic factors and parameters directly affecting nitrification. Nitrate hydrographs were monitored by chloride hydrographs. The highest nitrate concentrations were in the shallower parts of the aquifer, and well deepening and changes in water level, pumping patterns and recharge rates complicated interpretations. However, the hydrographs helped to pinpoint the source of nitrate in areas where several possible sources were present.
Keywords:
Water resources development -- Arizona.; Hydrology -- Arizona.; Hydrology -- Southwestern states.; Water resources development -- Southwestern states.; Nitrates; Hydrographs; Groundwater; Chemical analysis; Water chemistry; California; Semiarid climates; Chlorides; Seasonal; Hydrogeology; Water quality control; Sewage lagoons; Pollutant identification; Hydrograph analysis; Water wells; Water pollution sources; Chemical hydrographs
ISSN:
0272-6106

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleThe Use of Chemical Hydrographs in Groundwater Quality Studiesen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Kenneth D.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentHarshbarger and Associates, Tucson, Arizonaen_US
dc.date.issued1971-04-23-
dc.rightsCopyright ©, where appropriate, is held by the author.en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis article is part of the Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest collections. Digital access to this material is made possible by the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science and the University of Arizona Libraries. For more information about items in this collection, contact anashydrology@gmail.com.en_US
dc.publisherArizona-Nevada Academy of Scienceen_US
dc.identifier.journalHydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwesten_US
dc.description.abstractHigh nitrates in drinking water are significant in relation to an infant disease, methemoglobinemia, and the U.S. public health service has set a limit of 45 ppm for human consumption. This paper illustrates how chemical hydrographs were used in a study of nitrates in the groundwater of the Fresno-Clovis metropolitan area (F.C.M.A.) of semiarid central California. The area comprises about 145 square miles, with a population of 310,000. Urban water use is entirely derived from wells, whereas the surrounding agriculture relies on surface and ground water. In 1965, the California department of water resources noted nitrate concentrations in the F.C.M.A. were exceeding the safe limit. A number of sources of error in chemical analyses of water quality are noted. A measure of the accuracies of analyses and a method of double-checking anomalous results is furnished by plotting chemical hydrographs of individual wells. Seasonal changes in nitrate were consistent for many parts of the area, and were related to hydrogeologic factors and parameters directly affecting nitrification. Nitrate hydrographs were monitored by chloride hydrographs. The highest nitrate concentrations were in the shallower parts of the aquifer, and well deepening and changes in water level, pumping patterns and recharge rates complicated interpretations. However, the hydrographs helped to pinpoint the source of nitrate in areas where several possible sources were present.en_US
dc.subjectWater resources development -- Arizona.en_US
dc.subjectHydrology -- Arizona.en_US
dc.subjectHydrology -- Southwestern states.en_US
dc.subjectWater resources development -- Southwestern states.en_US
dc.subjectNitratesen_US
dc.subjectHydrographsen_US
dc.subjectGroundwateren_US
dc.subjectChemical analysisen_US
dc.subjectWater chemistryen_US
dc.subjectCaliforniaen_US
dc.subjectSemiarid climatesen_US
dc.subjectChloridesen_US
dc.subjectSeasonalen_US
dc.subjectHydrogeologyen_US
dc.subjectWater quality controlen_US
dc.subjectSewage lagoonsen_US
dc.subjectPollutant identificationen_US
dc.subjectHydrograph analysisen_US
dc.subjectWater wellsen_US
dc.subjectWater pollution sourcesen_US
dc.subjectChemical hydrographsen_US
dc.identifier.issn0272-6106-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/300118-
dc.identifier.journalHydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwesten_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeProceedingsen_US
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