Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/299122
Title:
Epigenomic Actions of Environmental Arsenicals
Author:
Severson, Paul Leamon
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Epigenetic dysfunction is a known contributor in carcinogenesis, and is emerging as a mechanism involved in toxicant-induced malignant transformation for environmental carcinogens such as arsenicals. In addition to aberrant DNA methylation of single genes, another manifestation of epigenetic dysfunction in cancer is agglomerative DNA methylation, which can participate in long-range epigenetic silencing that targets many neighboring genes and has been shown to occur in several types of clinical cancers. Using in vitro model systems of toxicant-induced malignant transformation, we found hundreds of aberrant DNA methylation events that emerge during malignant transformation, some of which occur in an agglomerative fashion. In an arsenite-transformed prostate epithelial cell line, the protocadherin (PCDH), HOXC and HOXD gene family clusters are targeted for agglomerative DNA methylation. Aberrant DNA methylation in general occurred more often within H3K27me3 stem cell domains. We found a striking association between enrichment of H3K9me3 stem cell domains and toxicant-induced agglomerative DNA methylation. Global gene expression profiling of the arsenite-transformed prostate epithelial cells showed that gene expression changes and DNA methylation changes were negatively correlated, but less than 10% of the hypermethylated genes were down-regulated. These studies confirm that a majority of the DNA hypermethylation events occur at transcriptionally repressed, H3K27me3 marked genes. In contrast to aberrant DNA methylation targeting H3K27me3 pre-marked silent genes, we found that actively expressed ZNF genes marked with H3K9me3 on their 3' ends, are preferred targets of DNA methylation linked gene silencing. H3K9me3 mediated gene silencing of ZNF genes was widespread, occurring at individual ZNF genes on multiple chromosomes and across ZNF gene family clusters. At ZNF gene promoters, H3K9me3 and DNA hypermethylation replaced H3K4me3, resulting in a widespread down-regulation of ZNF gene expression which accounted for 8% of all the down-regulated genes in the arsenical-transformed cells. In summary, these studies associate arsenical exposure with agglomerative DNA methylation of gene family clusters and widespread silencing of ZNF genes by DNA hypermethylation-linked H3K9me3 spreading, further implicating epigenetic dysfunction as a driver of arsenical-induced carcinogenesis.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
DNA methylation; Epigenetics; Histone methylation; Malignant Transformation; Zinc Finger Genes; Pharmacology & Toxicology; Arsenic
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Pharmacology & Toxicology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Futscher, Bernard W.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleEpigenomic Actions of Environmental Arsenicalsen_US
dc.creatorSeverson, Paul Leamonen_US
dc.contributor.authorSeverson, Paul Leamonen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractEpigenetic dysfunction is a known contributor in carcinogenesis, and is emerging as a mechanism involved in toxicant-induced malignant transformation for environmental carcinogens such as arsenicals. In addition to aberrant DNA methylation of single genes, another manifestation of epigenetic dysfunction in cancer is agglomerative DNA methylation, which can participate in long-range epigenetic silencing that targets many neighboring genes and has been shown to occur in several types of clinical cancers. Using in vitro model systems of toxicant-induced malignant transformation, we found hundreds of aberrant DNA methylation events that emerge during malignant transformation, some of which occur in an agglomerative fashion. In an arsenite-transformed prostate epithelial cell line, the protocadherin (PCDH), HOXC and HOXD gene family clusters are targeted for agglomerative DNA methylation. Aberrant DNA methylation in general occurred more often within H3K27me3 stem cell domains. We found a striking association between enrichment of H3K9me3 stem cell domains and toxicant-induced agglomerative DNA methylation. Global gene expression profiling of the arsenite-transformed prostate epithelial cells showed that gene expression changes and DNA methylation changes were negatively correlated, but less than 10% of the hypermethylated genes were down-regulated. These studies confirm that a majority of the DNA hypermethylation events occur at transcriptionally repressed, H3K27me3 marked genes. In contrast to aberrant DNA methylation targeting H3K27me3 pre-marked silent genes, we found that actively expressed ZNF genes marked with H3K9me3 on their 3' ends, are preferred targets of DNA methylation linked gene silencing. H3K9me3 mediated gene silencing of ZNF genes was widespread, occurring at individual ZNF genes on multiple chromosomes and across ZNF gene family clusters. At ZNF gene promoters, H3K9me3 and DNA hypermethylation replaced H3K4me3, resulting in a widespread down-regulation of ZNF gene expression which accounted for 8% of all the down-regulated genes in the arsenical-transformed cells. In summary, these studies associate arsenical exposure with agglomerative DNA methylation of gene family clusters and widespread silencing of ZNF genes by DNA hypermethylation-linked H3K9me3 spreading, further implicating epigenetic dysfunction as a driver of arsenical-induced carcinogenesis.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectDNA methylationen_US
dc.subjectEpigeneticsen_US
dc.subjectHistone methylationen_US
dc.subjectMalignant Transformationen_US
dc.subjectZinc Finger Genesen_US
dc.subjectPharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
dc.subjectArsenicen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplinePharmacology & Toxicologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorFutscher, Bernard W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberNelson, Mark A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberKlimecki, Walter T.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSmith, Catharine L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChen, Yinen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFutscher, Bernard W.en_US
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