Molecular and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 associated with maternal-fetal transmission

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/298765
Title:
Molecular and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 associated with maternal-fetal transmission
Author:
Matala, Erik John
Issue Date:
1999
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Vertical transmission of HIV-1 represents a major, global health concern with particular regard to developing areas of the world, and perinatally acquired infections account for the majority of all pediatric HIV-1 cases. Maternal-fetal transmission of HIV-1 occurs at three stages: prepartum, intrapartum, and post-partum, however the mechanism of this transmission is not yet clearly defined. Additionally, the rate of transmission is estimated at ∼30%, leaving ∼70% of infected mothers who do not transmit to their infants. While several maternal factors including viral load, clinical stage of the mother, low CD4 counts, recent infection, and the maternal immune response to infection have been implicated in transmission, the viral factors which may influence transmission are not known. In this study, we have investigated the molecular and biological properties associated with the env V3 region and the entire env from both transmitting and non-transmitting mothers. Our results show that the minor genotypes of the mothers' heterogeneous viral populations are transmitted to their infants, the biological properties associated with the transmitted variants' V3 regions appear to be macrophage tropic (R5) and non-syncytium inducing, and the transmitted variants are initially maintained in the infants with the same properties. In addition, the molecular analyses of the env of non-transmitting mothers, including the variable regions V1-V2, V3, and V4-V5 were found to be significantly more homogeneous than that of transmitting mothers, suggesting that a limited heterogeneity within an infected mother may prevent vertical transmission. Since effective therapies should target the specific properties of transmitted variants, these results provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of maternal-fetal transmission, aiding the development of effective therapies for prevention of transmission and treatment of disease.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Biology, Molecular.; Health Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.; Biology, Microbiology.; Health Sciences, Pathology.; Health Sciences, Public Health.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Microbiology and Immunology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Ahmad, Nafees

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleMolecular and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 associated with maternal-fetal transmissionen_US
dc.creatorMatala, Erik Johnen_US
dc.contributor.authorMatala, Erik Johnen_US
dc.date.issued1999en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractVertical transmission of HIV-1 represents a major, global health concern with particular regard to developing areas of the world, and perinatally acquired infections account for the majority of all pediatric HIV-1 cases. Maternal-fetal transmission of HIV-1 occurs at three stages: prepartum, intrapartum, and post-partum, however the mechanism of this transmission is not yet clearly defined. Additionally, the rate of transmission is estimated at ∼30%, leaving ∼70% of infected mothers who do not transmit to their infants. While several maternal factors including viral load, clinical stage of the mother, low CD4 counts, recent infection, and the maternal immune response to infection have been implicated in transmission, the viral factors which may influence transmission are not known. In this study, we have investigated the molecular and biological properties associated with the env V3 region and the entire env from both transmitting and non-transmitting mothers. Our results show that the minor genotypes of the mothers' heterogeneous viral populations are transmitted to their infants, the biological properties associated with the transmitted variants' V3 regions appear to be macrophage tropic (R5) and non-syncytium inducing, and the transmitted variants are initially maintained in the infants with the same properties. In addition, the molecular analyses of the env of non-transmitting mothers, including the variable regions V1-V2, V3, and V4-V5 were found to be significantly more homogeneous than that of transmitting mothers, suggesting that a limited heterogeneity within an infected mother may prevent vertical transmission. Since effective therapies should target the specific properties of transmitted variants, these results provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of maternal-fetal transmission, aiding the development of effective therapies for prevention of transmission and treatment of disease.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectBiology, Molecular.en_US
dc.subjectHealth Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.en_US
dc.subjectBiology, Microbiology.en_US
dc.subjectHealth Sciences, Pathology.en_US
dc.subjectHealth Sciences, Public Health.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineMicrobiology and Immunologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorAhmad, Nafeesen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberAhmad, Nafeesen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberIto, Junetsuen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberBernstein, Harrisen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDodson, Marken_US
dc.identifier.proquest9946850en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b39918099en_US
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