Optimal Integrated Dynamic Traffic Assignment and Signal Control for Evacuation of Large Traffic Networks with Varying Threat Levels

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/297042
Title:
Optimal Integrated Dynamic Traffic Assignment and Signal Control for Evacuation of Large Traffic Networks with Varying Threat Levels
Author:
Nassir, Neema
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
This research contributes to the state of the art and state of the practice in solving a very important and computationally challenging problem in the areas of urban transportation systems, operations research, disaster management, and public policy. Being a very active topic of research during the past few decades, the problem of developing an efficient and practical strategy for evacuation of real-sized urban traffic networks in case of disasters from different causes, quickly enough to be employed in immediate disaster management scenarios, has been identified as one of the most challenging and yet vital problems by many researchers. More specifically, this research develops fast methods to find the optimal integrated strategy for traffic routing and traffic signal control to evacuate real-sized urban networks in the most efficient manner. In this research a solution framework is proposed, developed and tested which is capable of solving these problems in very short computational time. An efficient relaxation-based decomposition method is proposed, implemented for two evacuation integrated routing and signal control model formulations, proven to be optimal for both formulations, and verified to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal integrated routing and signal control problem. The efficiency of the proposed decomposition method is gained by reducing the integrated optimal routing and signal control problem into a relaxed optimal routing problem. This has been achieved through an insight into intersection flows in the optimal routing solution: in at least one of the optimal solutions of the routing problem, each street during each time interval only carries vehicles in at most one direction. This property, being essential to the proposed decomposition method, is called "unidirectionality" in this dissertation. The conditions under which this property exists in the optimal evacuation routing solution are identified, and the existence of unidirectionality is proven for: (1) the common Single-Destination System-Optimal Dynamic Traffic Assignment (SD-SODTA) problem, with the objective to minimize the total time spent in the threat area; and, (2) for the single-destination evacuation problem with varying threat levels, with traffic models that have no spatial queue propagation. The proposed decomposition method has been implemented in compliance with two widely-accepted traffic flow models, the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) and the Point Queue (PQ) model. In each case, the decomposition method finds the optimal solution for the integrated routing and signal control problem. Both traffic models have been coded and applied to a realistic real-size evacuation scenario with promising results. One important feature that is explored is the incorporation of evacuation safety aspects in the optimization model. An index of the threat level is associated with each link that reflects the adverse effects of traveling in a given threat zone on the safety and health of evacuees during the process of evacuation. The optimization problem is then formulated to minimize the total exposure of evacuees to the threat. A hypothetical large-scale chlorine gas spill in a high populated urban area (downtown Tucson, Arizona) has been modeled for testing the evacuation models where the network has varying threat levels. In addition to the proposed decomposition method, an efficient network-flow solution algorithm is also proposed to find the optimal routing of traffic in networks with several threat zones, where the threat levels may be non-uniform across different zones. The proposed method can be categorized in the class of "negative cycle canceling" algorithms for solving minimum cost flow problems. The unique feature in the proposed algorithm is introducing a multi-source shortest path calculation which enables the efficient detection and cancellation of negative cycles. The proposed method is proven to find the optimal solution, and it is also applied to and verified for a mid-size test network scenario.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Evacuation; Network Flow Algorithms; Point-Queue and Spatial-Queue; System Optimal Dynamic Traffic Assignment; Traffic Signal Optimization; Civil Engineering; Cell Transmission Model
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Civil Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Hickman, Mark D.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleOptimal Integrated Dynamic Traffic Assignment and Signal Control for Evacuation of Large Traffic Networks with Varying Threat Levelsen_US
dc.creatorNassir, Neemaen_US
dc.contributor.authorNassir, Neemaen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThis research contributes to the state of the art and state of the practice in solving a very important and computationally challenging problem in the areas of urban transportation systems, operations research, disaster management, and public policy. Being a very active topic of research during the past few decades, the problem of developing an efficient and practical strategy for evacuation of real-sized urban traffic networks in case of disasters from different causes, quickly enough to be employed in immediate disaster management scenarios, has been identified as one of the most challenging and yet vital problems by many researchers. More specifically, this research develops fast methods to find the optimal integrated strategy for traffic routing and traffic signal control to evacuate real-sized urban networks in the most efficient manner. In this research a solution framework is proposed, developed and tested which is capable of solving these problems in very short computational time. An efficient relaxation-based decomposition method is proposed, implemented for two evacuation integrated routing and signal control model formulations, proven to be optimal for both formulations, and verified to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal integrated routing and signal control problem. The efficiency of the proposed decomposition method is gained by reducing the integrated optimal routing and signal control problem into a relaxed optimal routing problem. This has been achieved through an insight into intersection flows in the optimal routing solution: in at least one of the optimal solutions of the routing problem, each street during each time interval only carries vehicles in at most one direction. This property, being essential to the proposed decomposition method, is called "unidirectionality" in this dissertation. The conditions under which this property exists in the optimal evacuation routing solution are identified, and the existence of unidirectionality is proven for: (1) the common Single-Destination System-Optimal Dynamic Traffic Assignment (SD-SODTA) problem, with the objective to minimize the total time spent in the threat area; and, (2) for the single-destination evacuation problem with varying threat levels, with traffic models that have no spatial queue propagation. The proposed decomposition method has been implemented in compliance with two widely-accepted traffic flow models, the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) and the Point Queue (PQ) model. In each case, the decomposition method finds the optimal solution for the integrated routing and signal control problem. Both traffic models have been coded and applied to a realistic real-size evacuation scenario with promising results. One important feature that is explored is the incorporation of evacuation safety aspects in the optimization model. An index of the threat level is associated with each link that reflects the adverse effects of traveling in a given threat zone on the safety and health of evacuees during the process of evacuation. The optimization problem is then formulated to minimize the total exposure of evacuees to the threat. A hypothetical large-scale chlorine gas spill in a high populated urban area (downtown Tucson, Arizona) has been modeled for testing the evacuation models where the network has varying threat levels. In addition to the proposed decomposition method, an efficient network-flow solution algorithm is also proposed to find the optimal routing of traffic in networks with several threat zones, where the threat levels may be non-uniform across different zones. The proposed method can be categorized in the class of "negative cycle canceling" algorithms for solving minimum cost flow problems. The unique feature in the proposed algorithm is introducing a multi-source shortest path calculation which enables the efficient detection and cancellation of negative cycles. The proposed method is proven to find the optimal solution, and it is also applied to and verified for a mid-size test network scenario.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectEvacuationen_US
dc.subjectNetwork Flow Algorithmsen_US
dc.subjectPoint-Queue and Spatial-Queueen_US
dc.subjectSystem Optimal Dynamic Traffic Assignmenten_US
dc.subjectTraffic Signal Optimizationen_US
dc.subjectCivil Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectCell Transmission Modelen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineCivil Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorHickman, Mark D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChiu, Yi-Changen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLin, Wei Huaen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberZheng, Hongen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHickman, Mark D.en_US
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