Optimization for Fuel Cells/Fuel Cell Stacks Using Combined Methods---CFD Modeling Analysis, and Experiments

Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/297027
Title:
Optimization for Fuel Cells/Fuel Cell Stacks Using Combined Methods---CFD Modeling Analysis, and Experiments
Author:
Liu, Hong
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Fuel cells are one of most environmental friendly energy sources; they have many advantages and may be used in many applications from portable electronic devices to automotive components. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are one of most reliable fuel cells and have advantage such as rapid-startup and ease of operation. This dissertation focuses on PEM fuel cell stack optimization based on operation experimental research and numerical modeling study. This dissertation presents three major research activities and the obtained results by the Ph.D candidate. A novel stack architecture design is introduced in order to decrease mal-distribution and non-uniform output performance between individual cells in order to improve the stack performance. Novel stack architecture includes a novel external bifurcation flow distribution delivery system. One major issue of uniform distribution of reactants inside individual fuel cells and between fuel cells in a fuel cell stack is solved by the novel stack architecture design. A novel method for uniform flow distribution was proposed, in which multiple levels of flow channel bifurcations were considered to uniformly distribute a flow into 2ⁿ flow channels at the final stage, after n levels of bifurcation. Some detailed parameters such as the flow channel length and width at each level of bifurcation as well as the curvature of the turning area of flow channels were particularly investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based analysis and experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of the flow channel bifurcation structure and dimensions on the flow distribution uniformity. Optimization design and factors influential to the flow distribution uniformity were also delineated through the study. The flow field with the novel flow distribution was then considered to be used in a cooling plate for large fuel cell stacks and a possible method for cooling electronic devices. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly the temperature distributions, on the heating surface as well as the pressure losses in the operation were obtained. In the second part of the research, experimental testing, analytical modeling, and CFD methods were employed for the study and optimization of flow fields and flow channel geometry in order to improve fuel cell performance. Based on the experimental results, a serpentine flow field is chosen for CFD and modeling analysis. Serpentine flow channel optimization is based on the parametrical study of many combinations of total channel width and rib ratio. Modeling analysis and in-house made computational code was used to optimize the dimensions of flow channels and channel walls. It is recommended that cell channel design should use a small total channel width and rib ratio. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells were fabricated based on the optimization results. Experimental tests were conducted and the results coincided with the numerical analysis; therefore, small total width and rib ratio design could significantly improve the fuel cell performance. Three dimensional (3D) CFD simulations for various PEM fuel cells were conducted to investigate information such as water and reactants distribution. The direct simulation results of current density distribution proclaim how the channel design influences the performance. The final section of research is stack bipolar plate flow field optimization. Optimized channel geometries are applied to the serpentine channel design for the stack. This serpentine channel design evolved to parallel-serpentine channel and symmetric serpentine channel design. Experimental tests of the stacks using the above flow fields are compared to one another and the results recommend use of the novel symmetric serpentine flow channel for stack bipolar design to achieve best performance.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Fuel cell stack; Numerical Model; Optimization; Aerospace Engineering; Experimental test
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Aerospace Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Li, Peiwen

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleOptimization for Fuel Cells/Fuel Cell Stacks Using Combined Methods---CFD Modeling Analysis, and Experimentsen_US
dc.creatorLiu, Hongen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Hongen_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractFuel cells are one of most environmental friendly energy sources; they have many advantages and may be used in many applications from portable electronic devices to automotive components. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are one of most reliable fuel cells and have advantage such as rapid-startup and ease of operation. This dissertation focuses on PEM fuel cell stack optimization based on operation experimental research and numerical modeling study. This dissertation presents three major research activities and the obtained results by the Ph.D candidate. A novel stack architecture design is introduced in order to decrease mal-distribution and non-uniform output performance between individual cells in order to improve the stack performance. Novel stack architecture includes a novel external bifurcation flow distribution delivery system. One major issue of uniform distribution of reactants inside individual fuel cells and between fuel cells in a fuel cell stack is solved by the novel stack architecture design. A novel method for uniform flow distribution was proposed, in which multiple levels of flow channel bifurcations were considered to uniformly distribute a flow into 2ⁿ flow channels at the final stage, after n levels of bifurcation. Some detailed parameters such as the flow channel length and width at each level of bifurcation as well as the curvature of the turning area of flow channels were particularly investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based analysis and experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of the flow channel bifurcation structure and dimensions on the flow distribution uniformity. Optimization design and factors influential to the flow distribution uniformity were also delineated through the study. The flow field with the novel flow distribution was then considered to be used in a cooling plate for large fuel cell stacks and a possible method for cooling electronic devices. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly the temperature distributions, on the heating surface as well as the pressure losses in the operation were obtained. In the second part of the research, experimental testing, analytical modeling, and CFD methods were employed for the study and optimization of flow fields and flow channel geometry in order to improve fuel cell performance. Based on the experimental results, a serpentine flow field is chosen for CFD and modeling analysis. Serpentine flow channel optimization is based on the parametrical study of many combinations of total channel width and rib ratio. Modeling analysis and in-house made computational code was used to optimize the dimensions of flow channels and channel walls. It is recommended that cell channel design should use a small total channel width and rib ratio. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells were fabricated based on the optimization results. Experimental tests were conducted and the results coincided with the numerical analysis; therefore, small total width and rib ratio design could significantly improve the fuel cell performance. Three dimensional (3D) CFD simulations for various PEM fuel cells were conducted to investigate information such as water and reactants distribution. The direct simulation results of current density distribution proclaim how the channel design influences the performance. The final section of research is stack bipolar plate flow field optimization. Optimized channel geometries are applied to the serpentine channel design for the stack. This serpentine channel design evolved to parallel-serpentine channel and symmetric serpentine channel design. Experimental tests of the stacks using the above flow fields are compared to one another and the results recommend use of the novel symmetric serpentine flow channel for stack bipolar design to achieve best performance.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectFuel cell stacken_US
dc.subjectNumerical Modelen_US
dc.subjectOptimizationen_US
dc.subjectAerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectExperimental testen_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAerospace Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorLi, Peiwenen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberChan, Choliken_US
dc.contributor.committeememberZohar, Yitshaken_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRaghavan, Srinien_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLi, Peiwenen_US
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