Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/293439
Title:
Management of the Schmutzdecke Layer of a Slow Sand Filter
Author:
Livingston, Peter
Issue Date:
2013
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
Slow sand filters (SSF) have been used to treat surface water to drinking water standards for over a century. Today many cities, including London still treat surface waters to drinking water standards, however because there are viruses that are not efficiently removed by a slow sand filter and are not killed by chlorine, communities have turned to the use of micro filtration and/or reverse osmosis to provide safe drinking water. These technologies are much more efficient if organics are removed and turbidity reduced to less than 1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The greenhouse industry is another potential user of slow sand filters. They are not able to recycle irrigation drainage water without it being treated to reduce bacteria, virus, and fungi. The objective of this research was to develop management strategies for SSF that specifically meet the needs of entities using SSF for pretreatment of potable water or use in a greenhouse. This data was used to test a scour system that resulted in scouring 80 percent of the organic layer in the filter and suspending the solids for 40 minutes. A conceptual design was done for a full scale SSF that took advantage of the scour and suspension data to clean the SSF at the end of a run cycle. SSF were able to consistently produce water with a turbidity less than 1 (NTU) and with the infiltration capacity of 0.27 m³m⁻². For greenhouse effluent a 1,000 square meter greenhouse that is discharging 3,600 L d⁻¹ of drainage water would require a 12.6 m² SSF, and the SSF for the community requiring treatment of 4.7 million liters per day of raw water was 730 m². The innovative cleaning system based on an air/water jet was developed to clean the SSF. Experiments were run to determine the amount of time that the solids were suspended and a scour system developed to exceed these times. The entire time for cleaning and recovery of the SSF was an average of 118 minutes for the greenhouse system and 170 minutes for the SSF serving a small community.
Type:
text; Electronic Dissertation
Keywords:
Layer; Sand; Schmutzdecke; Slow; Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering; Filter
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Slack, Donald C.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.titleManagement of the Schmutzdecke Layer of a Slow Sand Filteren_US
dc.creatorLivingston, Peteren_US
dc.contributor.authorLivingston, Peteren_US
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractSlow sand filters (SSF) have been used to treat surface water to drinking water standards for over a century. Today many cities, including London still treat surface waters to drinking water standards, however because there are viruses that are not efficiently removed by a slow sand filter and are not killed by chlorine, communities have turned to the use of micro filtration and/or reverse osmosis to provide safe drinking water. These technologies are much more efficient if organics are removed and turbidity reduced to less than 1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The greenhouse industry is another potential user of slow sand filters. They are not able to recycle irrigation drainage water without it being treated to reduce bacteria, virus, and fungi. The objective of this research was to develop management strategies for SSF that specifically meet the needs of entities using SSF for pretreatment of potable water or use in a greenhouse. This data was used to test a scour system that resulted in scouring 80 percent of the organic layer in the filter and suspending the solids for 40 minutes. A conceptual design was done for a full scale SSF that took advantage of the scour and suspension data to clean the SSF at the end of a run cycle. SSF were able to consistently produce water with a turbidity less than 1 (NTU) and with the infiltration capacity of 0.27 m³m⁻². For greenhouse effluent a 1,000 square meter greenhouse that is discharging 3,600 L d⁻¹ of drainage water would require a 12.6 m² SSF, and the SSF for the community requiring treatment of 4.7 million liters per day of raw water was 730 m². The innovative cleaning system based on an air/water jet was developed to clean the SSF. Experiments were run to determine the amount of time that the solids were suspended and a scour system developed to exceed these times. The entire time for cleaning and recovery of the SSF was an average of 118 minutes for the greenhouse system and 170 minutes for the SSF serving a small community.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeElectronic Dissertationen_US
dc.subjectLayeren_US
dc.subjectSanden_US
dc.subjectSchmutzdeckeen_US
dc.subjectSlowen_US
dc.subjectAgricultural & Biosystems Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectFilteren_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAgricultural & Biosystems Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorSlack, Donald C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberGiacomelli, Gene A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCuello, Joel L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSlack, Donald C.en_US
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