Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/290659
Title:
Risk assessment of viruses in water
Author:
Crabtree, Kristina Dawn, 1968-
Issue Date:
1996
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The human health significance of waterborne viruses has previously relied on epidemiological data from documented waterborne outbreaks. It is difficult, however, to assess the risks involved to individuals and communities from exposure to low levels of contamination. Risk assessment is a useful tool in the interpretation of water quality data and can be used to better understand the significance of exposure to low-level contamination of viruses in water. Microbial risk assessment was applied to determine the risks associated with environmental exposure to waterborne coxsackievirus and adenovirus. Annual risks of infection for drinking water were determined to be as high as 10⁻¹ for both coxsackievirus and adenovirus at exposure levels of 0.13 PFU/l and 0.001 IU/l, respectively. A comprehensive cost-of-illness analysis was conducted for three waterborne viruses--Norwalk virus, rotavirus, and non-polio enterovirus--to determine the economic impact of waterborne viruses in the United States. Annual medical costs and productivity losses were estimated in 1993 dollars using actual outbreak information and data from epidemiological studies. It was estimated that $1.1 to $6.9 billion is spent each year in the United States due to these viral illnesses, with potentially $0.39 to $2.4 billion attributable to water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has initiated the Information Collection Rule (ICR) in which water utilities serving >100,000 people will be required to collect data on the concentrations of specific microorganisms in source and finished water beginning in 1997. Selected water utilities will be required to archive water samples for possible further viral analyses. A risk assessment approach was undertaken to determine which virus would be appropriate for the analyses of the archived water samples. The following viruses were selected based on the nature of the different diseases associated with each, their occurrence in waterborne outbreaks, and their resistance to inactivation by disinfectants: rotavirus, coxsackievirus, hepatitis A virus, adenovirus, Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the recommended detection method. The results of these analyses will provide both a database on the occurrence of these viruses in water as well as their susceptibility to water treatment.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Environmental Sciences.; Environmental Sciences.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Soil, Water and Environmental Science
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Gerba, Charles P.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleRisk assessment of viruses in wateren_US
dc.creatorCrabtree, Kristina Dawn, 1968-en_US
dc.contributor.authorCrabtree, Kristina Dawn, 1968-en_US
dc.date.issued1996en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe human health significance of waterborne viruses has previously relied on epidemiological data from documented waterborne outbreaks. It is difficult, however, to assess the risks involved to individuals and communities from exposure to low levels of contamination. Risk assessment is a useful tool in the interpretation of water quality data and can be used to better understand the significance of exposure to low-level contamination of viruses in water. Microbial risk assessment was applied to determine the risks associated with environmental exposure to waterborne coxsackievirus and adenovirus. Annual risks of infection for drinking water were determined to be as high as 10⁻¹ for both coxsackievirus and adenovirus at exposure levels of 0.13 PFU/l and 0.001 IU/l, respectively. A comprehensive cost-of-illness analysis was conducted for three waterborne viruses--Norwalk virus, rotavirus, and non-polio enterovirus--to determine the economic impact of waterborne viruses in the United States. Annual medical costs and productivity losses were estimated in 1993 dollars using actual outbreak information and data from epidemiological studies. It was estimated that $1.1 to $6.9 billion is spent each year in the United States due to these viral illnesses, with potentially $0.39 to $2.4 billion attributable to water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has initiated the Information Collection Rule (ICR) in which water utilities serving >100,000 people will be required to collect data on the concentrations of specific microorganisms in source and finished water beginning in 1997. Selected water utilities will be required to archive water samples for possible further viral analyses. A risk assessment approach was undertaken to determine which virus would be appropriate for the analyses of the archived water samples. The following viruses were selected based on the nature of the different diseases associated with each, their occurrence in waterborne outbreaks, and their resistance to inactivation by disinfectants: rotavirus, coxsackievirus, hepatitis A virus, adenovirus, Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the recommended detection method. The results of these analyses will provide both a database on the occurrence of these viruses in water as well as their susceptibility to water treatment.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Sciences.en_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Sciences.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil, Water and Environmental Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest9720589en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b34518824en_US
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