Persistent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/10150/290584
Title:
The fate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine water
Author:
Johnson, Dana Christine, 1968-
Issue Date:
1996
Publisher:
The University of Arizona.
Rights:
Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
Abstract:
The fate and occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were studied in the marine environment to assess their potential for transmission since their transmission to swimmers in fresh waters has been previously documented. The first part of this study was designed to determine the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium at bathing beaches within the vicinity of an outfall discharging primary treated sewage into Mamala Bay, Hawaii. Sites were monitored monthly and quarterly for parasites by passing 400 liters of marine water through a spun polyproplyene fiber filter. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in primary treated sewage from the Sand Island sewage treatment plant which discharges into Mamala Bay at concentrations of 2,560 cysts and 216 oocysts/liter, respectively. Ala Wai Canal as well as the bathing beaches within the vicinity of the outfall were also found to contain the parasites. The survival of Giardia in marine water was studied in direct sunlight and the dark in marine waters (33- to 35-ppt salinity), canal water (28-ppt salinity) and in phosphate-buffered saline (8-ppt) at 18 to 28°C. Giardia muris was inactivated by 3-logs in the presence of sunlight in marine and canal waters. In comparison, Giardia survive up to 6 hours in PBS under the same conditions. Overall, it appears that salinity and sunlight quickly inactivate Giardia cysts. Thus, Giardia would pose a threat only if the cysts reach the bathing beaches within a few hours. The last phase of this project was designed to develop a more efficient method of collection of cysts and oocysts from water. Methods for the concentration of enteric viruses, Giardia and Cryptosporidium from water requires the use of two different types of filters. This study compared the efficiency of their concentration from tap water and tertiary treated wastewater with a polypropylene fiber cartridge, and the Filterite electronegative and the 1MDS Virosorb electropositive microporous filters. Results indicated that the overall efficiency was greatest for the Filterite filter for both Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p = 0.000762 and p = 0.067069, respectively); and in addition they are easier and faster to process than the polypropylene-wound parasite filter.
Type:
text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)
Keywords:
Biology, Microbiology.; Biology, Oceanography.; Engineering, Marine and Ocean.; Engineering, Sanitary and Municipal.; Health Sciences, Public Health.
Degree Name:
Ph.D.
Degree Level:
doctoral
Degree Program:
Graduate College; Microbiology and Immunology
Degree Grantor:
University of Arizona
Advisor:
Gerba, Charles P.

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleThe fate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wateren_US
dc.creatorJohnson, Dana Christine, 1968-en_US
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Dana Christine, 1968-en_US
dc.date.issued1996en_US
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe fate and occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were studied in the marine environment to assess their potential for transmission since their transmission to swimmers in fresh waters has been previously documented. The first part of this study was designed to determine the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium at bathing beaches within the vicinity of an outfall discharging primary treated sewage into Mamala Bay, Hawaii. Sites were monitored monthly and quarterly for parasites by passing 400 liters of marine water through a spun polyproplyene fiber filter. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in primary treated sewage from the Sand Island sewage treatment plant which discharges into Mamala Bay at concentrations of 2,560 cysts and 216 oocysts/liter, respectively. Ala Wai Canal as well as the bathing beaches within the vicinity of the outfall were also found to contain the parasites. The survival of Giardia in marine water was studied in direct sunlight and the dark in marine waters (33- to 35-ppt salinity), canal water (28-ppt salinity) and in phosphate-buffered saline (8-ppt) at 18 to 28°C. Giardia muris was inactivated by 3-logs in the presence of sunlight in marine and canal waters. In comparison, Giardia survive up to 6 hours in PBS under the same conditions. Overall, it appears that salinity and sunlight quickly inactivate Giardia cysts. Thus, Giardia would pose a threat only if the cysts reach the bathing beaches within a few hours. The last phase of this project was designed to develop a more efficient method of collection of cysts and oocysts from water. Methods for the concentration of enteric viruses, Giardia and Cryptosporidium from water requires the use of two different types of filters. This study compared the efficiency of their concentration from tap water and tertiary treated wastewater with a polypropylene fiber cartridge, and the Filterite electronegative and the 1MDS Virosorb electropositive microporous filters. Results indicated that the overall efficiency was greatest for the Filterite filter for both Giardia and Cryptosporidium (p = 0.000762 and p = 0.067069, respectively); and in addition they are easier and faster to process than the polypropylene-wound parasite filter.en_US
dc.typetexten_US
dc.typeDissertation-Reproduction (electronic)en_US
dc.subjectBiology, Microbiology.en_US
dc.subjectBiology, Oceanography.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering, Marine and Ocean.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering, Sanitary and Municipal.en_US
dc.subjectHealth Sciences, Public Health.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh.D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate Collegeen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineMicrobiology and Immunologyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizonaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorGerba, Charles P.en_US
dc.identifier.proquest9706171en_US
dc.identifier.bibrecord.b34294028en_US
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